Are policies designed to prevent early school leaving working in Spain?
Analysis of the impact of the Learning and Performance Improvement Programme (PMAR)
1Early school leaving is a social problem because it helps to uphold social inequality, makes higher education’s role as the main social elevator more difficult, and increases the risk of precarity associated with an uncertain employment future.
2Early school leaving in Spain has tended to decline in recent decades, but in 2019 it was still at the average level of the EU-15 corresponding to the year 2007 (16.4%). The years of intense economic growth prior to the crisis of 2008 slowed this tendency down. The average level of the EU-15 in 2019 was 10.5%.
3The results of this research show that participating in the PMAR increases the probability of continuing in the education system (or leaving it with the ESO certificate) by around 12% after two years. Therefore, the programme does contribute to the prevention of early leaving.
4It is important to underline that the positive effects of the PMAR are relatively higher among females, whose participation increases by between 12% and 17% their probability of continuing in education at the end of two years.