The situation in Europe
The scale of the gender divide and Spain’s relative position in the context of Europe can be gauged by selecting one of the more representative indicators in each welfare sub-category for which we have comparable information for men and women in EU countries.
The differences between men and women who live in financially vulnerable households are very similar in all households across Europe, where the percentage of women living in financially vulnerable households is always higher than the percentage of men. Even so, at a comparative level, the position of Spanish women in the ranking of countries in order of economic vulnerability (23) is somewhat better than that of men (26). In general terms, in this ranking Spain is one of the countries where the incidence of financial vulnerability problems is highest.
This analysis of financial wellbeing is completed by comparing the need to have sufficient pay in the various countries in the EU. To examine this, we have selected as an indicator the percentage of workers whose pay per hour is less than 2/3 of the average rate, which depends on the distribution of pay rates in each country. As figure 22 shows, the percentage of women below the relative threshold is higher than the percentage of men in both Spain and Europe as a whole, though the gender divide in relation to pay is much greater in Spain, where the percentage of women on low pay is twice that of men, than in Europe as a whole.
The differences between men and women outlined in the analysis of housing-related social needs regarding excessive housing costs and the conditions of the home are not exclusive to Spain. Despite the difficulty of identifying differences and similarities with other countries due to the fact that the ways people access housing and the nature of policies differ widely from country to country, the indicator selected for the comparison, excessive housing costs, shows a gender divide very similar in Spain to that across Europe as a whole. It can be seen that excessive housing costs are concentrated to a greater degree among people living in households headed by women than by men in Spain and on average in EU countries. Nevertheless, if we compare people living in households headed by men in Spain with those in Europe, the position of Spanish men in the ranking is slightly worse than that of Spanish women.
With regard to health by gender, the tendencies in Spain are similar to those in Europe as a whole. Depression, the main mental health problem, is diagnosed more commonly among women than men, but the gender divide in Spain is almost twice that of Europe as a whole. This places Spanish women in a much worse position in the ranking in relation to European women than is the case of men.
With regard to education, Spain ranks lower than any other country in Europe with regard to the rate of children dropping out of education after compulsory schooling, coming in last position for males dropping out and in last but one position for females. In Europe as a whole and in Spain, the percentage of males giving up their studies after compulsory education is much higher than the percentage of females. This gender divide is particularly evident in Spain, as it is more than double the European average.
Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year
How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.
What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.
Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries
Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.
Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship
A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.
The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)
Between the years 2007 and 2013, the difficulties faced in employment, housing and health worsened considerably in Spain. This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” reflects on the problems that have intensified social exclusion which affects, above all, the younger population.
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Tackling child poverty
To what point do poverty and material deprivation affect the households in which children live? The eighth Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” analyses the relationship between child poverty and its consequences, such as health problems, academic failure and social mobility difficulties.
Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?
Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?
Who is affected by loneliness and social isolation?
The most visible face of loneliness is the feeling of not having people to call on or trust in case of need. Who does it affect most? We analyse the influence of factors such as age and gender.