The data are expressed in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) which allows the elimination of the differences in price levels that exist between countries and facilitates, therefore, a comparison of the GDP that better reflects the economic capacity of the citizens of each country.
The volume of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards is expressed in relation to the average of the European Union (EU-28), which takes the value of 100. Thus, if a country’s index is higher than 100, it means that the GDP per capita level of that country is higher than the average value of the European Union, and vice versa.
Globalisation and the rapid technological and digital transformation has
resulted in two coexisting economic models: “turbo-capitalism”, which works
with international logic, and “retro-capitalism”, which adopts the old
logic of protectionist capitalism.
Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women
continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and
industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour