Do women have fewer opportunities to be hired?

M. José González, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Clara Cortina, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Jorge Rodríguez, Universitat Pompeu Fabra

An experiment in gender discrimination in the jobs market shows that women aged between 37 and 39 years have an average of 30% fewer possibilities of being invited to a job interview than men with the same characteristics. Gender discrimination is greater when the applicants have children, and declines, although it never completely disappears, when they are better qualified for the job in question.
Key points
  • 1
       Over 5,600 fictitious CVs were sent to real job offers in Madrid and Barcelona. Subsequently, the probabilities of being invited to a job interview were compared between people with equivalent CVs that were only differentiated in terms of their gender, whether they had children or not and their degree of qualification for the position applied for.
  • 2
       Under equal conditions, women had an average of 30% fewer probabilities of being invited to a job interview than men with the same profile.
  • 3
       Gender differences in the recruitment process are greater when the applicants have children, although they decline, without completely disappearing, when they are better qualified for the position applied for.

To understand across all their complexity the effects of gender, number of children, and qualification for the post on the probability of being invited to a job interview, the following figure presents the response rates for different subgroups. Gender differences are maintained in all cases, although they are much smaller in the subgroup of applicants without children and with a high level of qualification. In this subgroup, and despite the equality in the curriculum of the two genders, women have a slightly lower probability of being invited to an interview (12.4%) than men (13.6%). In fact, in this subgroup the differences between men and women are very small and are not statistically significant. 

Probability of being invited to a job interview by sex, number of children and qualification for the post
Probability of being invited to a job interview by sex, number of children and qualification for the post

Prejudices or stereotypes?

When women applicants have a high level of qualification for the post and do not have children, differences with respect to men with the same level of qualification practically disappear. This circumstance enables the conclusion that gender discrimination in job recruitment processes is not explained as much by negative prejudices towards women in general, but rather by gender stereotypes, according to which women are usually seen as less committed to paid employment and more oriented towards the family.

Hide full article

Classification

Authors

M. José González, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Clara Cortina, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Jorge Rodríguez, Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Why do men not use work-family reconciliation measures?

According to this study, following new additions to the family only 4% of fathers requested reduced working hours, versus 37.7% of mothers. 

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Parental leave as a tool for gender equality

Today, thanks to policies aimed at reconciling working life and family life, increasing numbers of men are taking parental leave to be able to raise their newborn children. These new policies represent progress towards gender equality, but in Spain a significant difference still exists between men and women in the usage they make of parental leave entitlements.

Article

Health Inequalities by Education Level and Gender in Spain

To what measure do differences in educational level and gender result in a greater or lesser degree of poverty? Despite the advances in healthcare, education and income that have taken place in Spain, inequalities persist based on people’s level of education.

Article

Social stratification and parental care: an analysis of the Spanish case

Good parenting is fundamental for children’s development. How does parental dedication differ between social groups? Knowing the answer is essential if we want an equal society.


You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Health

Health

Social Inclusion

This report analyses four challenges relating to health in Spain: improving the population’s health, promoting healthy lifestyle habits, guaranteeing access to healthcare and the viability of services for dependency.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.