The severe material deprivation rate is an indicator that expresses the inability to pay for some articles considered by the majority as desirable or even necessary to lead an adequate life. The indicator measures the percentage of the population that cannot afford at least four of the following nine items: 1. pay their rent, mortgage or utility bills; 2. keep their home adequately warm in winter; 3. Face unexpected expenses; 4. eat meat or proteins regularly; 5. go on holiday; 6. a television set; 7. a washing machine; 8. a car; 9. a telephone.
In Spain barely 3.3% of the total of social transfers in the year 2016
targeted children, against the European average of 9%. However, this study
shows that it is the most effective way of eradicating poverty.
We analyse the relative influence of the family background and the skills
of each person on social mobility. Are there differences between the Nordic
countries and those in southern Europe such as Italy and Spain?