The labour market’s role in increasing inequalities during the economic crisis
1Employment sectors traditionally commanding lower pay have been the most affected by wage adjustment. In the hotel and catering sector, for example, pay fell by 12.8% between 2008 and 2016.
2The economic crisis has caused an increase in temporary and part-time jobs. Undesired part-time employment increased by over 20 percentage points between 2006 and 2017.
3Men earned, on average, 22% more than women in 2008. This percentage reached 24% in 2013 and, although it has declined since, it has not recovered its pre-crisis values.
4On average, the wages of extra-Community workers stand 35% below those of Spanish workers. This difference increased during the years of the economic crisis.
There has been a growth in part-time employment; a type of employment characterised precisely by a high level of wage precarity. Thus, not only have people in paid part-time work grown in number, but so has the percentage of them doing so non-voluntarily, i.e., people who work part time even though they would like to do so full time (graph 1).
Women present higher rates of unemployment, of seasonality, of part-time employment and a greater presence at lower levels of the labour hierarchy.
The average wage difference existing between the set of men and that of women tended to grow during the most acute years of the crisis, and although it subsequently declined, in 2016 it still exceeded the levels of 2006 (graph 2). According to these data, in 2016 women were earning, on average, around 22% less than men.