Who believes fake news in Spain?
1Conspiratorial and populist attitudes are related to believing fake news.
2People who get their news from social media (Whatsapp, Facebook, Twitter) are more likely to believe fake news.
3Corrective messages that call into question more strongly held personal beliefs and convictions may backfire and increase fake news belief.
4No source of corrective messages (institutional or individual) is more effective than any other: different types of sources create similar effects.
Whereas 85% of respondents considered it to be true that human activity is causing extreme weather events, the level of belief in the other claims (all of them false) was highly varied. Half of the respondents believed that patent holders were limiting the supply of cancer drugs in order to boost their profits or that genetically modified foods were unsafe. Only around 10% believed that the Spanish government was planning to replace language classes with religion classes in schools.