More female employment than ever, but the gender gap persists
The gender gap in employment prior to covid-19 stood at around 16.5%. This article assesses the impact of economic crises and analyses the evolution of female employment between 1980 and 2017.
Employed but poor
“In-work poverty” has the greatest impact on women and young people, and this was the case before the covid-19 crisis. This article shows that between 2010 and 2014, the median wage fell by 5.2%.
What influences people’s social position most: their family background or their skills?
We analyse the relative influence of the family background and the skills of each person on social mobility. Are there differences between the Nordic countries and those in southern Europe such as Italy and Spain?
Are intermediate jobs disappearing? The myth of labour polarisation in Europe
Is labour polarisation occurring in Europe? This study, prior to the covid-19 crisis, shows that in Spain, in barely 25 years, employment in higher-quality occupations has almost doubled.
Income inequality in Spain: a growing and underestimated problem
The increase in economic inequality in recent years in Spain translates into the richest 1% of the population obtaining a higher income than the poorest 50%. What lies behind this concentration of capital?
People suffering severe material deprivation
In the last ten years, the percentage of people in a situation of severe material deprivation in Spain has remained below the European average. Which country has the highest material deprivation rate?
The asymmetrical impact of the covid-19 crisis on the European labour market
The impact of the covid-19 crisis on the labour market is being more pronounced in the Mediterranean countries and is concentrated on workers with low salaries and in precarious jobs, as well as women and younger workers.
How is the use and expenditure of public healthcare services distributed?
Healthcare spending is unequal: it increases with age and is higher among men than women. Furthermore, 5% of the population is responsible for 50% of total expenditure. We analyse the factors that explain this, within a pre-covid-19 scenario.
Analysis of social needs of women and men
Have we improved in terms of equality between men and women? In this report we analyse five dimensions: economic wellbeing, employment, access to decent housing, education and state of health.
Housing: from fundamental principles to policies
What is the role of the public sector in access to housing? Can public policies act as a counterweight to the market? These two books examine the question from the European and United States viewpoint.
The arts and the advancement of the economy and society
What relationship exists between art and economics? We present two books that study the importance of creativity and innovation in the arts, as well as how art contributes to economic development.
Inequality: The Costs to Families
How do economic problems affect family stability? The books reviewed tackle changes in gender roles at work and the instability generated by socioeconomic inequality.
Using a series of basic indicators and synthetic indicators on social, demographic and economic issues, this section of the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” offers a view in figures of the social reality of Spain within the European and international context.
Social Inclusion Indicators
What is the country’s socioeconomic situation? The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” includes in this section a series of indicators that offer a current-day snapshot of the relationship between the economy and people, analysing aspects such as the composition of households or labour market access in comparison with the societies of peer countries.
Where is education heading? In this section the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” presents a series of indicators are presented that are key to understanding the situation of education in our society. The majority have been built using data from international databases such as the European Social Survey (ESS) or the PISA Report, among others.
Science, Innovation and Environment Indicators
Research is a potential driving force for promoting economic growth and social welfare. What is the relative effort in research that different countries make? What economic activities are related to that research? This set of indicators provides an introduction to the history of research and innovation in various countries.
How is our country positioned in cultural questions? Understanding culture in its broadest form, the indicators presented by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” in this section allow us to interpret how culture is interrelated, within a European context, with today’s social and economic reality.
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