A Snapshot of Energy Poverty

Millions of people in Spain are unable to pay their energy bills

Sergio Tirado Herrero, RMIT University Europe / Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
José Luis López Fernández, Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
Luis Jiménez Meneses, Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)

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Authors

Sergio Tirado Herrero , RMIT University Europe / Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
José Luis López Fernández , Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
Luis Jiménez Meneses , Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)

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Between the years 2007 and 2017, inequality in Spain increased, with a Gini Coeficient (not including social transfers) that has increased in value from 45 to 50

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The GDP in purchasing power standards allows a more exact comparison of the level of economic development between countries. In 2017, the GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards remained at 92% of the European average, unchanged from the previous year

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Elena Bárcena, M. Carmen Blanco and Salvador Pérez, Universidad de Málaga

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Elena Bárcena, M. Carmen Blanco and Salvador Pérez , Universidad de Málaga

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Households with very low work intensity and dependent children, greater risk of poverty and social exclusion

Some 79.3% of households with children and with very low work intensity were at risk of poverty in 2017. Does this figure exceed the European average?

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QA art

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using 'Content here, content here', making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for 'lorem ipsum' will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

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Miguel Requena, Chair Professor of Sociology ,
UNED

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Trinity College Dublin 2

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John W. O’Hagan
Trinity College Dublin 2

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Luis Ortiz, Professor of Political and Social Sciences
Jorge Rodríguez Menés, Professor of Political and Social Sciences ,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

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Johanna Dämmrich , European University Institute

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Authors

Elisenda Rentería , Centre for Demographic Studies researcher
Rosario Scandurra , UB
Guadalupe Souto , UAB
Concepció Patxot , UB

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Infodata

Inequality in income distribution

Between the years 2007 and 2017, inequality in Spain increased, with a Gini Coeficient (not including social transfers) that has increased in value from 45 to 50

Infodata

Level of economic development

The GDP in purchasing power standards allows a more exact comparison of the level of economic development between countries. In 2017, the GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards remained at 92% of the European average, unchanged from the previous year

Infodata

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You may also find interesting

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Silvia Avram, University of Essex
Olga Cantó, University of Alcalá and Equalitas network

Classification

Authors

Silvia Avram , University of Essex
Olga Cantó , University of Alcalá and Equalitas network

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Infodata

Inequality in income distribution

Between the years 2007 and 2017, inequality in Spain increased, with a Gini Coeficient (not including social transfers) that has increased in value from 45 to 50

Infodata

Level of economic development

The GDP in purchasing power standards allows a more exact comparison of the level of economic development between countries. In 2017, the GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards remained at 92% of the European average, unchanged from the previous year

Infodata

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In Spain barely 3.3% of the total of social transfers in the year 2016 targeted children, against the European average of 9%. However, this study shows that it is the most effective way of eradicating poverty.

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CaixaProinfancia Programme

The CaixaProinfancia programme supports families in a situation of poverty with academic reinforcement, grants for food and hygiene, leisure, psychotherapeutic care and family educational support.

You may also find interesting

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“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

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Social Inclusion

Can poverty be eradicated? Michael Kremer, Nobel Prize for Economics 2019, talks to us about new tools for the economy, which enable us to obtain a rigorous estimate of causes and impacts.

Report

Analysis of social needs of women and men

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Social Inclusion

Have we improved in terms of equality between men and women? In this report we analyse five dimensions: economic wellbeing, employment, access to decent housing, education and state of health.

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Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

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A lack of investment in innovation, major employment precarity and a lack of refresher training are obstacles for tackling the digitalisation of the Spanish economy. We analyse the causes.

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Nerea Zugasti, Lecturer at the Department of Social Work of the Public University of Navarra

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Nerea Zugasti , Lecturer at the Department of Social Work of the Public University of Navarra

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Some 79.3% of households with children and with very low work intensity were at risk of poverty in 2017. Does this figure exceed the European average?

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In Spain barely 3.3% of the total of social transfers in the year 2016 targeted children, against the European average of 9%. However, this study shows that it is the most effective way of eradicating poverty.

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The CaixaProinfancia programme supports families in a situation of poverty with academic reinforcement, grants for food and hygiene, leisure, psychotherapeutic care and family educational support.

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The high price of inequality: lessons on the costs and consequences of child poverty in advanced societies

The books reviewed here consider why it is important for everyone, and not just for the most vulnerable, to achieve more egalitarian societies.

You may also find interesting

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“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

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Can poverty be eradicated? Michael Kremer, Nobel Prize for Economics 2019, talks to us about new tools for the economy, which enable us to obtain a rigorous estimate of causes and impacts.

Report

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Have we improved in terms of equality between men and women? In this report we analyse five dimensions: economic wellbeing, employment, access to decent housing, education and state of health.

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Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

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A lack of investment in innovation, major employment precarity and a lack of refresher training are obstacles for tackling the digitalisation of the Spanish economy. We analyse the causes.

Cultural Participation in Spain: Antecedents and Opportunities

Tally Katz-Gerro, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Haifa
Martin Falk, Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)

Classification

Authors

Tally Katz-Gerro , Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Haifa
Martin Falk , Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)

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Demographic determinants

Population changes can occur due to variations in the population caused by natural changes and migratory movements.

Infodata

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Between the years 2007 and 2017, inequality in Spain increased, with a Gini Coeficient (not including social transfers) that has increased in value from 45 to 50

Infodata

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The GDP in purchasing power standards allows a more exact comparison of the level of economic development between countries. In 2017, the GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards remained at 92% of the European average, unchanged from the previous year

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Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

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"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

To what point does art contribute to social integration? Talking about access to culture under conditions of equality with Sunil Iyengar.

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Challenges faced by high culture to attract new audiences in the digital arena

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Theatre, opera, classical music, dance… Can digital consumption be an opportunity to attract new audiences to so-called high culture?

Infodata

New forms of cultural participation

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Income level influences habits in cultural participation online. What happens in our peer countries?

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What relationship exists between art and economics? We present two books that study the importance of creativity and innovation in the arts, as well as how art contributes to economic development.

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

A solution to a structural problem?

Almudena Moreno, Professor of Sociology,
University of Valladolid

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Almudena Moreno, Professor of Sociology ,
University of Valladolid

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Barometer

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Review

Between complacency and a self-defeating dream

The two books reviewed share concerns regarding the decline of the USA and show the problems facing the country. From different perspectives, both reach the same diagnosis regarding American society and the danger that threatens democracy.

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

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Interview

“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

Social Inclusion

Can poverty be eradicated? Michael Kremer, Nobel Prize for Economics 2019, talks to us about new tools for the economy, which enable us to obtain a rigorous estimate of causes and impacts.

Report

Analysis of social needs of women and men

Analysis of social needs of women and men

Social Inclusion

Have we improved in terms of equality between men and women? In this report we analyse five dimensions: economic wellbeing, employment, access to decent housing, education and state of health.

Article

Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

Social Inclusion

A lack of investment in innovation, major employment precarity and a lack of refresher training are obstacles for tackling the digitalisation of the Spanish economy. We analyse the causes.

Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

Luis Sanz Menéndez and Laura Cruz Castro, Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Classification

Authors

Luis Sanz Menéndez and Laura Cruz Castro , Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

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Related content

Infodata

Inequality in income distribution

Between the years 2007 and 2017, inequality in Spain increased, with a Gini Coeficient (not including social transfers) that has increased in value from 45 to 50

Infodata

Level of economic development

The GDP in purchasing power standards allows a more exact comparison of the level of economic development between countries. In 2017, the GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards remained at 92% of the European average, unchanged from the previous year

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Barometer

Percentage of children aged below 6 years that are at risk of poverty

Infodata

Participation in volunteer activities and active citizenship

To what point do elderly people participate in political activities? Some 6.5% of men and 4.3% of women aged between 65 and 74 years in our country participate actively in politics.

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Article

How many people do we know?

How many people do we know?

Science

According to this study, we frequently interact with an average of 536 acquaintances, but the number is different for each person. What factors influence the size of our relationship circles?

Interview

“Diversity makes science better”

“Diversity makes science better”

Science

Elizabeth Rasekoala, President of African Gong, defends the importance of science as a tool for social transformation and talks to us about the need for acquiring basic scientific literacy in order to be able to think critically.

Article

Does science advance one funeral at a time?

Does science advance one funeral at a time?

Science

What happens when a scientist conducting high-level research dies prematurely? This article confirms a proliferation of articles by new researchers, with disruptive ideas, in the field of the deceased person.

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Juan Prieto Rodríguez, María José Pérez Villadóniga and Sara Suárez Fernández, University of Oviedo

Education is the factor that most influences cultural consumption. Directly, because the higher the level of education, the greater the interest in culture. And indirectly, because the higher the level of education, the greater the income, and therefore, the greater the cultural consumption. The relevance of the different barriers to cultural consumption depends on the activity under consideration.
Key points
  • 1
       Lack of interest in the main reason for not attending live shows and places of cultural interest, while lack of income is the main reason for not going to the cinema.
  • 2
       In the case of live shows and visits to places of cultural interest, major polarisation occurs between those who never attend and those who attend regularly.
  • 3
       Going to the cinema shows a different pattern, with less polarisation, which is probably due to a greater interest in cinema among the population.
  • 4
       In addition, it is in cinema where the age effect is greatest: if we compare people under 30 with people over 65, the latter have a probability ten times higher of never attending.
  • 5
       Given the high proportion of individuals who state they have not participated in cultural activities, it is important to classify them into two groups: those who never participate and those who do not participate but could have done so if a particular circumstance had been different.
  • 6
       These two groups are very different and so the effectiveness of cultural policies will be different for each of them.
Average annual attendance by income and education level
Average annual attendance by income and education level

The graph shows the relationship between the equivalised income of each household member and annual attendance at cultural activities, differentiating by education level.

Two things are confirmed: (1) that independently of income, education has a positive effect on attendance at cultural activities and (2) that the effect of income on cultural consumption is more significant for higher education levels (secondary education and above).

How could we intervene to eliminate barriers to cultural participation?
  • To reduce the importance of economic restrictions a fiscal policy could be designed that includes a reduction of the indirect tax on cultural assets. The drop in prices would lead to a direct increase in cultural demand.
  • However, a fiscal reform of this type would have regressive effects, by benefiting to a greater extent individuals with a higher income.
  • If the aim is to tackle the problem represented by lack of interest, an early cultural education is important to develop the population’s interest and artistic tastes.
  • In this case, the effects would only be noted in the long term but would be much more stable.

Classification

Autores

Juan Prieto Rodríguez, María José Pérez Villadóniga and Sara Suárez Fernández , University of Oviedo

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Subject areas

Related content

Infodata

Inequality in income distribution

Between the years 2007 and 2017, inequality in Spain increased, with a Gini Coeficient (not including social transfers) that has increased in value from 45 to 50

Infodata

Level of economic development

The GDP in purchasing power standards allows a more exact comparison of the level of economic development between countries. In 2017, the GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards remained at 92% of the European average, unchanged from the previous year

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Interview

"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

To what point does art contribute to social integration? Talking about access to culture under conditions of equality with Sunil Iyengar.

Interview

“Culture belongs to the upper classes. It is hard to attract families with lower education levels”

How can the cultural consumption of the new generations, particularly that of families with lower educational levels, be increased? Françoise Benhamou provides some key points in this interview.

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Article

Challenges faced by high culture to attract new audiences in the digital arena

Challenges faced by high culture to attract new audiences in the digital arena

Culture

Theatre, opera, classical music, dance… Can digital consumption be an opportunity to attract new audiences to so-called high culture?

Infodata

New forms of cultural participation

New forms of cultural participation

Culture

Income level influences habits in cultural participation online. What happens in our peer countries?

Review

The arts and the advancement of the economy and society

The arts and the advancement of the economy and society

Culture

What relationship exists between art and economics? We present two books that study the importance of creativity and innovation in the arts, as well as how art contributes to economic development.

Why are young people unable to access home ownership?

Guzmán Antonio Muñoz Fernández, Universidad de Córdoba
Adaptation: Àlex Blancafort

Precarious employment and low wages are preventing a large number of Spain’s young people from accessing home ownership. They have neither capacity to pay the initial down-payment, nor stable employment to enable them to afford mortgage payments. Renting a property – often shared due to high prices – or remaining in the family home are the only alternatives for many of them. This tendency, which started to emerge in 2008, is growing year upon year.
Key points
  • 1
       Since the start of the economic crisis, there has been an accelerated decline in the number of young homeowners: today barely 26% of people aged under 29 years are owner-occupiers, versus 54% in 2008.
  • 2
       To access home ownership, many young people have to or would have to allocate over 60% of their monthly income to making mortgage repayments.
  • 3
       Some 48.9% of young people aged under 29 years were renting their homes in 2017, versus 32.3% in 2008. The greatest price increases in the property market are being recorded in rentals.
  • 4
       An emerging force is the free occupancy formula. Family members who own more than one property offer one of them free of charge to enable young relatives to leave home.
What possibilities do young people have of purchasing a home?
What possibilities do young people have of purchasing a home?

The standards used by the banks themselves recommend that no more than 30%-35% of monthly income be allocated to paying the mortgage. However, at present, the percentage of net salary for a single-person household that might be reserved to cover the cost of the first mortgage instalment for a free-market home can exceed 60%. For this reason, a young person can only buy a home with great difficulty.

Looking at population data (averages for young people in Spain), the average annual salary for a person aged 16 to 29 years is 11,161 euros. With a 30-year mortgage and an interest rate of 2.35%, assigning the recommended 30% of net salary to paying the loan means that a single person could purchase a home worth 78,289 euros, and a young household with two salaries a home worth 143,595 euros. However, although it depends on where the house is being sought, the average price of a home in Spain is around 175,000 euros.

For the majority of young people, the initial down-payment on the property purchase and the guarantees that need to be provided for mortgages are also a problem. Thus, the initial layout rises to 45,366 euros on average, calculated based on the estimate of a down-payment of 20% of the property value and an additional 10% for buying costs. This amount represents 2.2 times the total annual income of a young household that has at least two incoming wages.

Classification

Author

Guzmán Antonio Muñoz Fernández , Universidad de Córdoba
Adaptation: Àlex Blancafort

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Report

Analysis of social needs of youth

A lack of professional opportunities and labour precarity mean that young people are very vulnerable to economic crises. What were the circumstances of this group prior to covid-19?

Report

Housing

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Article

Housing system and welfare state. The Spanish case within the European context

The welfare system in Spain has never paid great attention to housing. However, it is a key aspect and one that has repercussions in other dimensions such as health and education.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.

Interview

"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

To what point does art contribute to social integration? Talking about access to culture under conditions of equality with Sunil Iyengar.

You may also find interesting

Interview

“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

Social Inclusion

Can poverty be eradicated? Michael Kremer, Nobel Prize for Economics 2019, talks to us about new tools for the economy, which enable us to obtain a rigorous estimate of causes and impacts.

Report

Analysis of social needs of women and men

Analysis of social needs of women and men

Social Inclusion

Have we improved in terms of equality between men and women? In this report we analyse five dimensions: economic wellbeing, employment, access to decent housing, education and state of health.

Article

Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

Social Inclusion

A lack of investment in innovation, major employment precarity and a lack of refresher training are obstacles for tackling the digitalisation of the Spanish economy. We analyse the causes.

Housing system and welfare state. The Spanish case within the European context

Jordi Bosch, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Carme Trilla, Barcelona Metropolitan Housing Observatory
Adaptation: Xavier Aguilar

From 1952 to date, in Spain over 6.8 million homes have been built with some kind of subsidy. This represents 26% of the total of the housing stock (estimated at 25.5 million homes). However, this housing stock has gradually passed over into private hands and the public sector has not been able to equip itself with subsidised residential resources to cater for the needs of successive generations. Today, the potential demand for social housing is calculated at 1.5 million homes and, in accordance with demographic projections, this could rise to 2.6 million by the year 2030.
Key points
  • 1
       In Spain, 38.4% of families with lower incomes (first quintile of income) are in a situation of overburden (households in which the cost of the mortgage or rental represents over 40% of total income). Among households in the second quintile, this rate falls to 11%, while for the total population the average stands at 19.8%.
  • 2
       Looking specifically at the rental market segment, the rate of overburden of the population in general stands at 42.1%, the highest in Europe.
  • 3
       In Spain, there are some 276,000 social rental dwellings, which represents just 1.5% of the housing pool. Historically, public action has prioritised access to ownership through state-subsidised housing sales.
  • 4
       In Spain, investment in housing policies is at the lower end of the European comparison: it receives only 0.9% of the total budget for social affairs, which represents 0.23% of GDP.
Housing as part of public spending
Housing as part of public spending

Spending on social protection represents 39.9% of total public spending. Within this section of the budgets, there is very little margin for spending on social housing, which represents only 0.1% of total public spending.

Low social spending on housing causes imbalances that overburden other welfare state benefits, which in turn affects the state coffers. Not having a decent and appropriate place to live with regard to physical and economic conditions has a negative effect on health, on children’s educational development and on the needs for assistance and social services for the most vulnerable people in the dwelling.

Classification

Authors

Jordi Bosch , Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Carme Trilla , Barcelona Metropolitan Housing Observatory
Adaptation: Xavier Aguilar

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Subject areas

Related content

Report

Housing

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Article

Why are young people unable to access home ownership?

Employment precarity is an obstacle to accessing home ownership for young people. Rental, which is more expensive, or family solidarity are the main alternatives for setting up a home.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.

Infodata

Difficulties in access to housing

In 2017, some 42.1% of people devoted more than 40% of their disposable income to paying the rent. What does this mean in the European context?

Infodata

Public investment in housing

In 2015, the percentage of social rental houses in Spain stood at 2.5%, which is very low. Which EU countries have the largest volume of social housing?

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Interview

“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

Social Inclusion

Can poverty be eradicated? Michael Kremer, Nobel Prize for Economics 2019, talks to us about new tools for the economy, which enable us to obtain a rigorous estimate of causes and impacts.

Report

Analysis of social needs of women and men

Analysis of social needs of women and men

Social Inclusion

Have we improved in terms of equality between men and women? In this report we analyse five dimensions: economic wellbeing, employment, access to decent housing, education and state of health.

Article

Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

Social Inclusion

A lack of investment in innovation, major employment precarity and a lack of refresher training are obstacles for tackling the digitalisation of the Spanish economy. We analyse the causes.

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Margarita Torre, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

When joining the world of employment, women have taken up manual jobs in a lower proportion than men. Furthermore, within this group, the female presence continues to be particularly low in traditionally male-dominated sectors such as mining, industry, construction and plant maintenance.
Key points
  • 1
       In Europe, nearly two out of every three workers in manual occupations 64.6%) are men.
  • 2
       Segregation by gender does not decrease in countries where vocational training is more widespread. In fact, vocational training has not been capable of integrating women into typically male-dominated jobs; in contrast, this has been achieved by tertiary education in disciplines such as medicine, law and architecture, where today there is a greater gender balance.
  • 3
       Segregation by gender in the labour market is very much related with individual factors, such as education level and occupation of parents, and, therefore, it originates in the aspirations formed in childhood and adolescence.
Male domination of manual occupations
Male domination of manual occupations

In Europe, the presence of men and women in management and professional occupations is very balanced. However, women have accessed in a much higher proportion jobs in the administrative, commercial and services sectors, and with lesser intensity, manual jobs.

The children of parents with manual jobs have more probability of ultimately doing the same kind of work. In contrast, the daughters of mothers who had prestigious positions are less likely to work in manual occupations than others, but once they do access such positions, it is more probable that they will break with gender stereotypes and occupy posts traditionally occupied by men, which usually offer better employment conditions.

Classification

Tags

Subject areas

Related content

Infodata

Inequality in income distribution

Between the years 2007 and 2017, inequality in Spain increased, with a Gini Coeficient (not including social transfers) that has increased in value from 45 to 50

Infodata

Level of economic development

The GDP in purchasing power standards allows a more exact comparison of the level of economic development between countries. In 2017, the GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards remained at 92% of the European average, unchanged from the previous year

Infodata

Social exclusion from the labour market

The difference in unemployment rates between men and women in our country is larger than the European average. How has it evolved during the recent years of economic crisis?

Article

Do women have fewer opportunities to be hired?

An experiment in gender discrimination confirms that, under equal conditions, women have 30% fewer probabilities of being invited to a job interview.

Article

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.

You may also find interesting

Interview

“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

“To alleviate poverty, there are small investments that can have an enormous impact”

Social Inclusion

Can poverty be eradicated? Michael Kremer, Nobel Prize for Economics 2019, talks to us about new tools for the economy, which enable us to obtain a rigorous estimate of causes and impacts.

Report

Analysis of social needs of women and men

Analysis of social needs of women and men

Social Inclusion

Have we improved in terms of equality between men and women? In this report we analyse five dimensions: economic wellbeing, employment, access to decent housing, education and state of health.

Article

Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

Strengths and weaknesses of Spain’s economy with regard to the challenge of digitalisation

Social Inclusion

A lack of investment in innovation, major employment precarity and a lack of refresher training are obstacles for tackling the digitalisation of the Spanish economy. We analyse the causes.