Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Lídia Farré, Universitat de Barcelona
Francesc Ortega, City University of New York

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Article

Employment in Spain: still a long way off from the knowledge society

A predominance of low-added value employment, lack of investment in innovation and precarious conditions for workers are distancing Spain from the knowledge economy. How can this situation be corrected?

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The new generation of digital technologies in Spain

Will new-generation technologies substitute the most routine jobs? Discover the impact of automation on the world of work. 

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Do women have fewer opportunities to be hired?

An experiment in gender discrimination confirms that, under equal conditions, women have 30% fewer probabilities of being invited to a job interview.

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Participate or win? Women, men and competitiveness

Are women worse at competing? This article shows that factors exist, of a cultural nature, that can explain part of the discrimination that women suffer in the jobs market.   

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The labour market’s role in increasing inequalities during the economic crisis

Does the phenomenon of the "working poor" spread? Among other effects of the economic crisis, temporary and part-time jobs have increased and wages have been reduced.

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Education as a Social Elevator

Education as a Social Elevator

Education

Education, research and knowledge are fundamental pillars for predicting a country’s future development. The Dossier  tackles the role of education as a social elevator and the presence of students of immigrant origin in the classroom.

Article

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Education

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.  

Article

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

Education

The economic crisis experienced by Spain has led to increasing numbers of young people opting to prolong their education given the lack of job prospects. This fact has caused overqualification among young people and the consolidation of unemployment.


Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Margarita Torre, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

When joining the world of employment, women have taken up manual jobs in a lower proportion than men. Furthermore, within this group, the female presence continues to be particularly low in traditionally male-dominated sectors such as mining, industry, construction and plant maintenance.
Key points
  • 1
       In Europe, nearly two out of every three workers in manual occupations 64.6%) are men.
  • 2
       Segregation by gender does not decrease in countries where vocational training is more widespread. In fact, vocational training has not been capable of integrating women into typically male-dominated jobs; in contrast, this has been achieved by tertiary education in disciplines such as medicine, law and architecture, where today there is a greater gender balance.
  • 3
       Segregation by gender in the labour market is very much related with individual factors, such as education level and occupation of parents, and, therefore, it originates in the aspirations formed in childhood and adolescence.
Male domination of manual occupations
Male domination of manual occupations

In Europe, the presence of men and women in management and professional occupations is very balanced. However, women have accessed in a much higher proportion jobs in the administrative, commercial and services sectors, and with lesser intensity, manual jobs.

The children of parents with manual jobs have more probability of ultimately doing the same kind of work. In contrast, the daughters of mothers who had prestigious positions are less likely to work in manual occupations than others, but once they do access such positions, it is more probable that they will break with gender stereotypes and occupy posts traditionally occupied by men, which usually offer better employment conditions.

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Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

Article

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

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Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

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Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

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The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

Luis Sanz Menéndez and Laura Cruz Castro, Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

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Luis Sanz Menéndez and Laura Cruz Castro , Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

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Thematics

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Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

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Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

Science

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Housing system and welfare state. The Spanish case within the European context

Jordi Bosch, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Carme Trilla, Barcelona Metropolitan Housing Observatory
Adaptation: Xavier Aguilar

From 1952 to date, in Spain over 6.8 million homes have been built with some kind of subsidy. This represents 26% of the total of the housing stock (estimated at 25.5 million homes). However, this housing stock has gradually passed over into private hands and the public sector has not been able to equip itself with subsidised residential resources to cater for the needs of successive generations. Today, the potential demand for social housing is calculated at 1.5 million homes and, in accordance with demographic projections, this could rise to 2.6 million by the year 2030.
Key points
  • 1
       In Spain, 38.4% of families with lower incomes (first quintile of income) are in a situation of overburden (households in which the cost of the mortgage or rental represents over 40% of total income). Among households in the second quintile, this rate falls to 11%, while for the total population the average stands at 19.8%.
  • 2
       Looking specifically at the rental market segment, the rate of overburden of the population in general stands at 42.1%, the highest in Europe.
  • 3
       In Spain, there are some 276,000 social rental dwellings, which represents just 1.5% of the housing pool. Historically, public action has prioritised access to ownership through state-subsidised housing sales.
  • 4
       In Spain, investment in housing policies is at the lower end of the European comparison: it receives only 0.9% of the total budget for social affairs, which represents 0.23% of GDP.
Housing as part of public spending
Housing as part of public spending

Spending on social protection represents 39.9% of total public spending. Within this section of the budgets, there is very little margin for spending on social housing, which represents only 0.1% of total public spending.

Low social spending on housing causes imbalances that overburden other welfare state benefits, which in turn affects the state coffers. Not having a decent and appropriate place to live with regard to physical and economic conditions has a negative effect on health, on children’s educational development and on the needs for assistance and social services for the most vulnerable people in the dwelling.

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Authors

Jordi Bosch , Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Carme Trilla , Barcelona Metropolitan Housing Observatory
Adaptation: Xavier Aguilar

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Thematics

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Why are young people unable to access home ownership?

Employment precarity is an obstacle to accessing home ownership for young people. Rental, which is more expensive, or family solidarity are the main alternatives for setting up a home.

Infodata

Difficulties in access to housing

In 2017, some 42.1% of people devoted more than 40% of their disposable income to paying the rent. What does this mean in the European context?

Infodata

Public investment in housing

In 2015, the percentage of social rental houses in Spain stood at 2.5%, which is very low. Which EU countries have the largest volume of social housing?

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Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

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Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

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Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Why are young people unable to access home ownership?

Guzmán Antonio Muñoz Fernández, Universidad de Córdoba
Adaptation: Àlex Blancafort

Precarious employment and low wages are preventing a large number of Spain’s young people from accessing home ownership. They have neither capacity to pay the initial down-payment, nor stable employment to enable them to afford mortgage payments. Renting a property – often shared due to high prices – or remaining in the family home are the only alternatives for many of them. This tendency, which started to emerge in 2008, is growing year upon year.
Key points
  • 1
       Since the start of the economic crisis, there has been an accelerated decline in the number of young homeowners: today barely 26% of people aged under 29 years are owner-occupiers, versus 54% in 2008.
  • 2
       To access home ownership, many young people have to or would have to allocate over 60% of their monthly income to making mortgage repayments.
  • 3
       Some 48.9% of young people aged under 29 years were renting their homes in 2017, versus 32.3% in 2008. The greatest price increases in the property market are being recorded in rentals.
  • 4
       An emerging force is the free occupancy formula. Family members who own more than one property offer one of them free of charge to enable young relatives to leave home.
What possibilities do young people have of purchasing a home?
What possibilities do young people have of purchasing a home?

The standards used by the banks themselves recommend that no more than 30%-35% of monthly income be allocated to paying the mortgage. However, at present, the percentage of net salary for a single-person household that might be reserved to cover the cost of the first mortgage instalment for a free-market home can exceed 60%. For this reason, a young person can only buy a home with great difficulty.

Looking at population data (averages for young people in Spain), the average annual salary for a person aged 16 to 29 years is 11,161 euros. With a 30-year mortgage and an interest rate of 2.35%, assigning the recommended 30% of net salary to paying the loan means that a single person could purchase a home worth 78,289 euros, and a young household with two salaries a home worth 143,595 euros. However, although it depends on where the house is being sought, the average price of a home in Spain is around 175,000 euros.

For the majority of young people, the initial down-payment on the property purchase and the guarantees that need to be provided for mortgages are also a problem. Thus, the initial layout rises to 45,366 euros on average, calculated based on the estimate of a down-payment of 20% of the property value and an additional 10% for buying costs. This amount represents 2.2 times the total annual income of a young household that has at least two incoming wages.

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Guzmán Antonio Muñoz Fernández , Universidad de Córdoba
Adaptation: Àlex Blancafort

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Thematics

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What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

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Housing: right or commodity?

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.

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Housing system and welfare state. The Spanish case within the European context

The welfare system in Spain has never paid great attention to housing. However, it is a key aspect and one that has repercussions in other dimensions such as health and education.

Article

The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)

Between the years 2007 and 2013, the difficulties faced in employment, housing and health worsened considerably in Spain. This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” reflects on the problems that have intensified social exclusion which affects, above all, the younger population.

Infodata

Young people and wellbeing

The level of satisfaction with life varies according to age groups. The younger population tends to show higher levels of satisfaction.

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Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

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Housing

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What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

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Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Juan Prieto Rodríguez, María José Pérez Villadóniga and Sara Suárez Fernández, University of Oviedo

Education is the factor that most influences cultural consumption. Directly, because the higher the level of education, the greater the interest in culture. And indirectly, because the higher the level of education, the greater the income, and therefore, the greater the cultural consumption. The relevance of the different barriers to cultural consumption depends on the activity under consideration.
Key points
  • 1
       Lack of interest in the main reason for not attending live shows and places of cultural interest, while lack of income is the main reason for not going to the cinema.
  • 2
       In the case of live shows and visits to places of cultural interest, major polarisation occurs between those who never attend and those who attend regularly.
  • 3
       Going to the cinema shows a different pattern, with less polarisation, which is probably due to a greater interest in cinema among the population.
  • 4
       In addition, it is in cinema where the age effect is greatest: if we compare people under 30 with people over 65, the latter have a probability ten times higher of never attending.
  • 5
       Given the high proportion of individuals who state they have not participated in cultural activities, it is important to classify them into two groups: those who never participate and those who do not participate but could have done so if a particular circumstance had been different.
  • 6
       These two groups are very different and so the effectiveness of cultural policies will be different for each of them.
Average annual attendance by income and education level
Average annual attendance by income and education level

The graph shows the relationship between the equivalised income of each household member and annual attendance at cultural activities, differentiating by education level.

Two things are confirmed: (1) that independently of income, education has a positive effect on attendance at cultural activities and (2) that the effect of income on cultural consumption is more significant for higher education levels (secondary education and above).

How could we intervene to eliminate barriers to cultural participation?
  • To reduce the importance of economic restrictions a fiscal policy could be designed that includes a reduction of the indirect tax on cultural assets. The drop in prices would lead to a direct increase in cultural demand.
  • However, a fiscal reform of this type would have regressive effects, by benefiting to a greater extent individuals with a higher income.
  • If the aim is to tackle the problem represented by lack of interest, an early cultural education is important to develop the population’s interest and artistic tastes.
  • In this case, the effects would only be noted in the long term but would be much more stable.

Classification

Autores

Juan Prieto Rodríguez, María José Pérez Villadóniga and Sara Suárez Fernández , University of Oviedo

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Thematics

Related contents

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

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Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

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What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

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A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

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Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Article

On music, happiness and health. What do we know?

On music, happiness and health. What do we know?

Culture

How does music influence our wellbeing? This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” describes how various researchers, healthcare practitioners and other professionals interpret the relationship that exists between music and happiness.


Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs


Braulio Gómez, Researcher in Political Science at the University of Deusto
Manuel Trujillo, Coordinator of the Statistics Unit at the Advanced Social Studies Institute (IESA-CSIC)

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Authors


Braulio Gómez, Researcher in Political Science at the University of Deusto
Manuel Trujillo, Coordinator of the Statistics Unit at the Advanced Social Studies Institute (IESA-CSIC)

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Chapter

Una propuesta de renta fiscal universal para España

La propuesta de una renta fiscal universal busca convertir el mínimo vital definido en el IRPF en una auténtica renta garantizada para asegurar a todos los ciudadanos un mínimo nivel de ingresos.

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

El cambio tecnológico parece favorecer un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. En este contexto, la renta básica universal se vislumbra como una medida para compensar a los más desfavorecidos por los cambios en los modos de producción.

Chapter

Los complementos salariales y la garantía de ingresos: posibilidades y límites

¿Se puede garantizar una renta a toda la sociedad asignando algún tipo de complemento a los salarios? Repasamos las principales características de los complementos salariales a partir de distintas experiencias, especialmente anglosajonas.

Chapter

Problemas de incentivos: renta básica universal versus prestación de ingresos mínimos

Análisis comparado de la renta básica y la prestación de ingresos mínimos. Se analizan los efectos de ambas sobre la oferta de trabajo, los costes de financiación o los problemas de englobar estas medidas en el contexto internacional. 

Chapter

Introducción

Introducción a cargo del coordinador y director del informe, Jordi Sevilla. Economista y exministro
de Administraciones Públicas (2004-2007).

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Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

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Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

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Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Andreu Lope, Autonomous University of Barcelona

The scarcity of resources, excessive concentration of training schemes in certain sectors and lack of participation by social agents are hindering the efficiency of training for employed people, which seemingly does not prepare workers sufficiently for the changes ahead in the employment sphere.
Key points
  • 1
       The training of employees is essential if workers are to maintain their competitiveness and adapt to changes in the field of production.
  • 2
       Investment in training for employed workers has fallen to 50% of levels prior to the economic crisis.
  • 3
       Continual training for employed workers is concentrated among large-sized companies and benefits employees with higher prior qualifications.
Falling investment in training for employed people
Falling investment in training for employed people

Training employed people is a vital element for improving their employability and adapting their skills to changes at work and to the requirements of companies. In the long term, investing in the training of employees leads to an increase in companies’ productivity and competitiveness.

However, the reduction in budgets allocated to this type of training has limited its influence to a large extent. The budget for training for employed people grew progressively up to 1,545 million euros in 2010. After very severe cuts in 2012 (when it was cut back to 951 million euros), the slight increases of subsequent years have not enabled recovery of the amounts prior to 2012: in 2015 the budget reached 1,069 million euros.

As we can see in Figure, cutbacks have not occurred so much in the continual training offered by the companies or that of public employees, but have essentially been directed at the training offered by Spain’s government or its autonomous communities, so-called “supply-based training”.

What type of continual training is offered and who benefits from it?

The economic crisis has also affected the type of continual training that companies offer. Although the number of participants in training programmes has increased slightly, the courses offered are increasingly of a shorter duration. Continual training, furthermore, is taught fundamentally at large-sized companies (with coverage rates higher than 80% in the year 2016), while it is much less frequently found at small companies, whose coverage rate does not even reach 20%, a percentage that has fallen even further in recent years. In general, better-qualified employees with a higher prior education level receive more continual training.

Classification

Author

Andreu Lope , Autonomous University of Barcelona

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

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Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

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A predominance of low-added value employment, lack of investment in innovation and precarious conditions for workers are distancing Spain from the knowledge economy. How can this situation be corrected?

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The new generation of digital technologies in Spain

Will new-generation technologies substitute the most routine jobs? Discover the impact of automation on the world of work. 

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Does unemployment harm mental health?

Stress, depression, insomnia, tension, feeling of uselessness… This article analyses how the mental health of workers was affected by the economic crisis and long-term unemployment.  

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Dossier

Education as a Social Elevator

Education as a Social Elevator

Education

Education, research and knowledge are fundamental pillars for predicting a country’s future development. The Dossier  tackles the role of education as a social elevator and the presence of students of immigrant origin in the classroom.

Article

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Education

The “la Caixa” Banking Foundation grants programme, which funds postgraduate studies, has a major impact on the careers of its beneficiaries. Who applies for these grants and what factors determine to whom they are awarded?

Article

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

Education

The economic crisis experienced by Spain has led to increasing numbers of young people opting to prolong their education given the lack of job prospects. This fact has caused overqualification among young people and the consolidation of unemployment.


Is Spain losing out on international investment in R&D?

Paloma Miravitlles, Fariza Achcaoucaou, Ana Núñez-Carballosa and Laura Guitart-Tarrés, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Barcelona

Classification

Authors

Paloma Miravitlles, Fariza Achcaoucaou, Ana Núñez-Carballosa and Laura Guitart-Tarrés , Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Barcelona

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

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Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

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Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

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Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

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Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

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Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

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Article

Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

Science

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Cultural Participation in Spain: Antecedents and Opportunities

Tally Katz-Gerro, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Haifa
Martin Falk, Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)

Classification

Authors

Tally Katz-Gerro , Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Haifa
Martin Falk , Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

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Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Culture

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.


On music, happiness and health. What do we know?

Antonio Estache and Victor Ginsburgh, European Center for Advanced Research in Economics and Statistics (ECARES), Université libre de Bruxelles.

Classification

Authors

Antonio Estache and Victor Ginsburgh , European Center for Advanced Research in Economics and Statistics (ECARES), Université libre de Bruxelles.

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Article

Social stratification and parental care: an analysis of the Spanish case

Good parenting is fundamental for children’s development. How does parental dedication differ between social groups? Knowing the answer is essential if we want an equal society.

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.

Article

Cultural Participation in Spain: Antecedents and Opportunities

The level of cultural participation in our country is similar to that of other European countries, with the exception of the Nordic countries. From a comparative perspective, this article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” analyses the effects of education level, age, income and some variables of the employment situation on attendance rates.

Article

Attendance at Publicly-Funded Arts Events

What is the cause behind such a high disparity in the participation rates in cultural offerings financed using public funds? Does this have a direct relationship with the population’s level of education?


 

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Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Culture

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.


Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Ester Martínez-Ros, University Carlos III de Madrid

Including objectives to reduce environmental impact in business strategies not only improves a company’s reputation, it also contributes to the creation of quality employment. This study analyses how companies that introduce “green” innovation into their corporate strategy generate more employment than non-innovative companies or those whose innovations are not environmentally-oriented. Moreover, it is observed that this positive effect on employment is even greater in industries considered more contaminant. These results are especially relevant in a context in which both the environment and the generation of employment are public priorities.
Key points
  • 1
       The study concludes that investment in green innovation represents an opportunity to tackle the problem of unemployment in Spain.
  • 2
       Even at times of crisis, companies that include concern for the environment as a strategy and that innovate in line with this principle show an average employment level that is not only higher but also grows.
  • 3
       At present, investments in eco-innovation are mainly assigned to complying with environmental standards, but not to the direct transformation of companies to use clean technologies through important changes in the production process (for example, favouring lower use of energies and materials).
  • 4
       Nonetheless, voluntary adherence to eco-innovative objectives is a predictor of increases in employee numbers.
Total employment according to type of company
Total employment according to type of company

The data show that companies that have been investing in eco-innovation have generated the most employment in recent years, even during the toughest years of the recession. Regression analysis using data from the Technological Innovation Panel survey concludes that the presence of eco-innovations is associated with increases in employment levels, and that this effect is multiplied in companies situated in sectors considered more contaminant. All these results do not appear in those companies that simply do not innovate.

On the other hand companies related with clean industries enjoy a better image due to their lesser environmental impact; therefore companies that belong to more contaminant industries feel a greater need to differentiate themselves. The introduction of green technologies by these companies means that they are perceived as more sustainable. For this reason, society responds in a more positive and receptive way when green innovations are introduced by companies from highly contaminant sectors, which in turn, produces an increase in their competitive advantage in the market.

 

 

Classification

Autor

Ester Martínez-Ros , University Carlos III de Madrid

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

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Educational expansion and the partial devaluation of credentials

Has mass access of Spaniards to intermediate and higher education been associated with a deterioration in the quality of educational qualifications, as some international bodies have warned?   

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Is research responding to health needs?

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.

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Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

Science is a very relevant activity in economic terms, which also has a very favourable social perception. However, Spain invests less in R&D than the rest of the European countries, confirming a gap between citizens' attitudes and the will of politicians and businesses.

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Is Spain losing out on international investment in R&D?

On the global economic map drawn up by the financial crisis of 2008, the emerging countries are displacing the developed countries in the attracting of foreign investment in R&D. What factors influence this phenomenon and how does it affect countries such as Spain?

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A Snapshot of Energy Poverty

Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon since the beginning of the crisis in 2008 and the highest incidence is found in certain socioeconomic groups. What are the consequences of this reality? What structural measures would be needed to tackle this problem?

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Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

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Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

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How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.

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Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Science

Historically, technology has transformed many professions. How will technological development affect future employment? The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses the situation in Spain with regard to “risk of computerisation”.


Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

María Ramos, Post-doctoral researcher at the Carlos III University of Madrid

Classification

Authors

María Ramos , Post-doctoral researcher at the Carlos III University of Madrid

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

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Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

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The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

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Low education level, low labour force participation

The economic crisis has affected the labour market for young people in Spain, especially for those with a low level of education. This situation needs to be reverted to avoid many under-30s ultimately suffering from exclusion.

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The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)

Between the years 2007 and 2013, the difficulties faced in employment, housing and health worsened considerably in Spain. This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” reflects on the problems that have intensified social exclusion which affects, above all, the younger population.

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Education as a Social Elevator

Education as a Social Elevator

Education

Education, research and knowledge are fundamental pillars for predicting a country’s future development. The Dossier  tackles the role of education as a social elevator and the presence of students of immigrant origin in the classroom.

Article

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Education

The “la Caixa” Banking Foundation grants programme, which funds postgraduate studies, has a major impact on the careers of its beneficiaries. Who applies for these grants and what factors determine to whom they are awarded?

Article

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Education

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.  


Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Joan Costa-Font, London School of Economics

Classification

Author

Joan Costa-Font , London School of Economics

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

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Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

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Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

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Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

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The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

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Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Climate Change and Human Rights

John H. Knox, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the issue of the human rights and the environment,
Wake Forest University (United States)

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Authors

John H. Knox, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the issue of the human rights and the environment ,
Wake Forest University (United States)

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Chapter

Una propuesta de renta fiscal universal para España

La propuesta de una renta fiscal universal busca convertir el mínimo vital definido en el IRPF en una auténtica renta garantizada para asegurar a todos los ciudadanos un mínimo nivel de ingresos.

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

El cambio tecnológico parece favorecer un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. En este contexto, la renta básica universal se vislumbra como una medida para compensar a los más desfavorecidos por los cambios en los modos de producción.

Chapter

Los complementos salariales y la garantía de ingresos: posibilidades y límites

¿Se puede garantizar una renta a toda la sociedad asignando algún tipo de complemento a los salarios? Repasamos las principales características de los complementos salariales a partir de distintas experiencias, especialmente anglosajonas.

Chapter

Problemas de incentivos: renta básica universal versus prestación de ingresos mínimos

Análisis comparado de la renta básica y la prestación de ingresos mínimos. Se analizan los efectos de ambas sobre la oferta de trabajo, los costes de financiación o los problemas de englobar estas medidas en el contexto internacional. 

Chapter

Introducción

Introducción a cargo del coordinador y director del informe, Jordi Sevilla. Economista y exministro
de Administraciones Públicas (2004-2007).

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Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

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Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

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Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

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How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


The Social Elevator

To what degree does education improve social mobility?

Miguel Requena, Chair Professor of Sociology,
UNED

Classification

Authors

Miguel Requena, Chair Professor of Sociology ,
UNED

Tags

Thematics

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Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

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Education as a Social Elevator

Education as a Social Elevator

Education Social Inclusion

Education, research and knowledge are fundamental pillars for predicting a country’s future development. The Dossier  tackles the role of education as a social elevator and the presence of students of immigrant origin in the classroom.

Article

Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Education Social Inclusion

Pre-school education plays a fundamental role in improving reading comprehension capabilities in primary and secondary school, especially among immigrant students. This is shown by the results in the three countries analysed: Spain, Norway and Sweden. 

Infodata

Early Childhood Education

Early Childhood Education

Education Social Inclusion

With the aim of improving parental access to the labour market, the Council of Europe is working towards all countries in the European Union achieving 33% of children enrolled in pre-school education.


How can legislation be used to promote public health?

The cases of smoking and road accidents

Jaime Pinilla, senior lecturer of Applied Economics University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

Classification

Author

Jaime Pinilla , senior lecturer of Applied Economics University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

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Thematics

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Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Article

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

Increasingly, the inhabitants of the suburbs have been choosing not to go and vote. What are the reasons that explain such extreme abstention by this collective in electoral processes? Has the new politics managed to draw greater participation from the more disadvantaged areas?

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Is research responding to health needs?

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.

Article

Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

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On the global economic map drawn up by the financial crisis of 2008, the emerging countries are displacing the developed countries in the attracting of foreign investment in R&D. What factors influence this phenomenon and how does it affect countries such as Spain?

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Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

Science

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Is research responding to health needs?

Ismael Ràfols, Ingenio (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politècnica de València
Alfredo Yegros, University of Leiden (Netherlands)

When we compare the impact of each disease with the intensity of the research dedicated to it, we can observe substantial misalignments between effort and needs. Conditions such as depression or stroke, despite affecting millions of people worldwide, attract relatively little research. The same happens with health conditions prevalent in low- and medium-income countries such as malaria and tuberculosis: given their impact, they would deserve more investment in R&D.
Key points
  • 1
       Current research evaluation systems attach priority to scientific visibility (for example, publication in top specialised journals), which may be preventing the resulting knowledge from being as useful to society.
  • 2
       On a global level, cancer represents over 22% of global medical publications, even though its disease burden does not reach 10% of the total. Cardiovascular, infectious and parasitic diseases represent over 16% of disease burden, but less than 10% of publications.
  • 3
       In Spain, conditions such as stroke, depression, colon and lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are researched less than one would expect from their incidence levels.
  • 4
       To be more sensitive to social needs, research priorities must be based on evidence about health needs, information from other sectors affected by health R&D and on dialogue with patients.
Disease burden versus research effort, Spain
Disease burden versus research effort, Spain

This graph represents the impact of different diseases (as a percentage of the total burden of all diseases) against the proportion of scientific publications (as a percentage of the total of scientific publications on diseases). Those situated below the 45° line have a level of publications proportionately lower than their disease burden, therefore could be qualified as   “under-studied”. In those lying above the same line, there are relatively more publications than their disease burden. Conditions with a high disease burden on a worldwide level but little burden on a national level are usually researched more than the country needs, and constitute a contribution by local research to global health.

In health, everything counts

We can take the case of obesity as an example. Given that resources are limited, many of the sectors affected agree that more intense research is needed on social and psychological factors related with the food industry, consumer patterns and sedentary lifestyles, rather than prioritising biological knowledge or improving therapeutic focuses, such as surgery.

Global health, local research

All over the world, health equity is considered to be a shared value, and one that can be promoted by supporting research into global health. Furthermore, globalisation means that lifestyle habits and infectious diseases today have consequences for health across the planet. 

Classification

Authors

Ismael Ràfols , Ingenio (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politècnica de València
Alfredo Yegros , University of Leiden (Netherlands)

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

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Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

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Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

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Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Article

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Science

Historically, technology has transformed many professions. How will technological development affect future employment? The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses the situation in Spain with regard to “risk of computerisation”.


The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

A solution to a structural problem?

Almudena Moreno, Professor of Sociology,
University of Valladolid

Classification

Authors

Almudena Moreno, Professor of Sociology ,
University of Valladolid

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

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Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

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Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

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Social Inclusion

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Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Attendance at Publicly-Funded Arts Events

Are the highly variable attendance rates by educational level a cause for concern?

John W. O’Hagan
Trinity College Dublin 2

Classification

Authors

John W. O’Hagan
Trinity College Dublin 2

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

The economic crisis experienced by Spain has led to increasing numbers of young people opting to prolong their education given the lack of job prospects. This fact has caused overqualification among young people and the consolidation of unemployment.

Article

Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

Science is a very relevant activity in economic terms, which also has a very favourable social perception. However, Spain invests less in R&D than the rest of the European countries, confirming a gap between citizens' attitudes and the will of politicians and businesses.

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.

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Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Culture

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.