Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Aina Gallego, Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals

The growing automation of a large number of occupational tasks above all affects the lowest qualified employees, but also those with intermediate qualifications, such as those in administrative positions. The evidence available suggests that in Spain, many jobs will be affected. This risk is not evenly distributed throughout the population: the impact will be greater among workers with lower levels of education and those currently unemployed. Workers displaced by machines will find themselves forced to acquire new skills, but many may find this difficult and not all of them will achieve it.
Key points
  • 1
       Spain has a computerisation risk above 0.50. This means that around half of the tasks carried out today by humans today will be carried out by machines in a few years. This risk is not evenly distributed among the population nor among occupations.
  • 2
       The group at the greatest risk is that of administrative staff, who will be easier to substitute with technological capital. Finally, other characters such as workers in services and sales, operators and non-skilled workers present intermediate risk levels.
  • 3
       Over half of the tasks carried out in “technical” occupations could be carried out by machines in coming years. This group includes professions such as specialised operators, technical engineers or inspectors, who have intermediate training levels and carry out some routine tasks.
  • 4
       Management and “professional” occupations (with the latter category ranging from doctors to chemists, teachers or IT specialists) are those with the least risk of the typical tasks of these professions being carried out by machines.
Risk of computerisation
Risk of computerisation

Risk of computerisation is the probability that certain tasks currently undertaken by people will change to be carried out by machines (robots, computers, artificial intelligence, etc.). It affects men and women almost equally, but notable is the major difference due to education level. As shown by the graph, approximately 30% of the tasks carried out today by people with a university education are at risk, but the risk reaches almost 70% of people who have primary education. Also prominent are the differences by income level: the best paid professions presently are the most protected against the risk of being carried out by machines. With respect to the labour situation, those people who are unemployed or studying (after having worked) are in a more vulnerable position than those who are currently working.

Political involvement and risk of computerisation
  • Citizens whose jobs are at greater risk of automation are also less politically involved. Therefore, it is foreseeable that the political response to this situation will not heed their viewpoints.
  • Citizens who have not participated in any political act except voting at the elections have jobs with higher computerisation risks than the rest.
  • People with no interest in politics have a much greater risk.
  • Citizens to the right of the political spectrum have jobs with a lower risk of computerisation than the rest.
  • Citizens against income redistribution present lower computerisation risks than citizens who state they are in favour of redistribution. 

Classification

Author

Aina Gallego , Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

You may also like

Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

Science

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

Silvia Avram, University of Essex
Olga Cantó, University of Alcalá and Equalitas network

Classification

Authors

Silvia Avram , University of Essex
Olga Cantó , University of Alcalá and Equalitas network

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Chapter

Una propuesta de renta fiscal universal para España

La propuesta de una renta fiscal universal busca convertir el mínimo vital definido en el IRPF en una auténtica renta garantizada para asegurar a todos los ciudadanos un mínimo nivel de ingresos.

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

El cambio tecnológico parece favorecer un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. En este contexto, la renta básica universal se vislumbra como una medida para compensar a los más desfavorecidos por los cambios en los modos de producción.

Chapter

Los complementos salariales y la garantía de ingresos: posibilidades y límites

¿Se puede garantizar una renta a toda la sociedad asignando algún tipo de complemento a los salarios? Repasamos las principales características de los complementos salariales a partir de distintas experiencias, especialmente anglosajonas.

Chapter

Problemas de incentivos: renta básica universal versus prestación de ingresos mínimos

Análisis comparado de la renta básica y la prestación de ingresos mínimos. Se analizan los efectos de ambas sobre la oferta de trabajo, los costes de financiación o los problemas de englobar estas medidas en el contexto internacional. 

Chapter

Introducción

Introducción a cargo del coordinador y director del informe, Jordi Sevilla. Economista y exministro
de Administraciones Públicas (2004-2007).

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

Elisenda Rentería, Centre for Demographic Studies researcher
Rosario Scandurra, UB
Guadalupe Souto, UAB
Concepció Patxot, UB

Classification

Authors

Elisenda Rentería , Centre for Demographic Studies researcher
Rosario Scandurra , UB
Guadalupe Souto , UAB
Concepció Patxot , UB

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Chapter

Una propuesta de renta fiscal universal para España

La propuesta de una renta fiscal universal busca convertir el mínimo vital definido en el IRPF en una auténtica renta garantizada para asegurar a todos los ciudadanos un mínimo nivel de ingresos.

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

El cambio tecnológico parece favorecer un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. En este contexto, la renta básica universal se vislumbra como una medida para compensar a los más desfavorecidos por los cambios en los modos de producción.

Chapter

Los complementos salariales y la garantía de ingresos: posibilidades y límites

¿Se puede garantizar una renta a toda la sociedad asignando algún tipo de complemento a los salarios? Repasamos las principales características de los complementos salariales a partir de distintas experiencias, especialmente anglosajonas.

Chapter

Problemas de incentivos: renta básica universal versus prestación de ingresos mínimos

Análisis comparado de la renta básica y la prestación de ingresos mínimos. Se analizan los efectos de ambas sobre la oferta de trabajo, los costes de financiación o los problemas de englobar estas medidas en el contexto internacional. 

Chapter

Introducción

Introducción a cargo del coordinador y director del informe, Jordi Sevilla. Economista y exministro
de Administraciones Públicas (2004-2007).

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)

Nerea Zugasti, Lecturer at the Department of Social Work of the Public University of Navarra

Classification

Author

Nerea Zugasti , Lecturer at the Department of Social Work of the Public University of Navarra

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Chapter

Una propuesta de renta fiscal universal para España

La propuesta de una renta fiscal universal busca convertir el mínimo vital definido en el IRPF en una auténtica renta garantizada para asegurar a todos los ciudadanos un mínimo nivel de ingresos.

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

El cambio tecnológico parece favorecer un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. En este contexto, la renta básica universal se vislumbra como una medida para compensar a los más desfavorecidos por los cambios en los modos de producción.

Chapter

Los complementos salariales y la garantía de ingresos: posibilidades y límites

¿Se puede garantizar una renta a toda la sociedad asignando algún tipo de complemento a los salarios? Repasamos las principales características de los complementos salariales a partir de distintas experiencias, especialmente anglosajonas.

Chapter

Problemas de incentivos: renta básica universal versus prestación de ingresos mínimos

Análisis comparado de la renta básica y la prestación de ingresos mínimos. Se analizan los efectos de ambas sobre la oferta de trabajo, los costes de financiación o los problemas de englobar estas medidas en el contexto internacional. 

Chapter

Introducción

Introducción a cargo del coordinador y director del informe, Jordi Sevilla. Economista y exministro
de Administraciones Públicas (2004-2007).

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Johanna Dämmrich, European University Institute

Classification

Authors

Johanna Dämmrich , European University Institute

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Dossier

Families and Child Welfare

The 6th Dossier of the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” aims to provide elements for reflection on the diversity of family models in Spain and on how these can condition child welfare.

Article

Parental leave as a tool for gender equality

Today, thanks to policies aimed at reconciling working life and family life, increasing numbers of men are taking parental leave to be able to raise their newborn children. These new policies represent progress towards gender equality, but in Spain a significant difference still exists between men and women in the usage they make of parental leave entitlements.

Infodata

Public investment in elderly people

What percentage of public spending is allocated to elderly people? The tendency in European countries has been to increase the weight of the resources allocated to this group.

Infodata

Unemployment as a key factor in situations of poverty and social exclusion

Major differences exist in unemployment rates depending on age and nationality. Almost half of Spaniards aged below 25 years were unemployed in 2016.

Infodata

Early Childhood Education

With the aim of improving parental access to the labour market, the Council of Europe is working towards all countries in the European Union achieving 33% of children enrolled in pre-school education.

You may also like

Dossier

Education as a Social Elevator

Education as a Social Elevator

Education Social Inclusion

Education, research and knowledge are fundamental pillars for predicting a country’s future development. The Dossier  tackles the role of education as a social elevator and the presence of students of immigrant origin in the classroom.

Article

The Social Elevator

The Social Elevator

Education Social Inclusion

Despite its perception in recent years, education continues to be a very effective vehicle for social promotion, as well as a more significant factor than social origin in providing access to the professional classes.

Infodata

Early Childhood Education

Early Childhood Education

Education Social Inclusion

With the aim of improving parental access to the labour market, the Council of Europe is working towards all countries in the European Union achieving 33% of children enrolled in pre-school education.


Educational expansion and the partial devaluation of credentials

Negative effects of educational expansion on occupational returns in Spain by education levels and fields of study

Luis Ortiz, Professor of Political and Social Sciences
Jorge Rodríguez Menés, Professor of Political and Social Sciences,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Classification

Authors

Luis Ortiz, Professor of Political and Social Sciences
Jorge Rodríguez Menés, Professor of Political and Social Sciences ,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Article

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

Article

Low education level, low labour force participation

The economic crisis has affected the labour market for young people in Spain, especially for those with a low level of education. This situation needs to be reverted to avoid many under-30s ultimately suffering from exclusion.

Article

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

Increasingly, the inhabitants of the suburbs have been choosing not to go and vote. What are the reasons that explain such extreme abstention by this collective in electoral processes? Has the new politics managed to draw greater participation from the more disadvantaged areas?

Article

Health Inequalities by Education Level and Gender in Spain

To what measure do differences in educational level and gender result in a greater or lesser degree of poverty? Despite the advances in healthcare, education and income that have taken place in Spain, inequalities persist based on people’s level of education.

You may also like

Dossier

Education as a Social Elevator

Education as a Social Elevator

Education

Education, research and knowledge are fundamental pillars for predicting a country’s future development. The Dossier  tackles the role of education as a social elevator and the presence of students of immigrant origin in the classroom.

Article

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Education

The “la Caixa” Banking Foundation grants programme, which funds postgraduate studies, has a major impact on the careers of its beneficiaries. Who applies for these grants and what factors determine to whom they are awarded?

Article

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Education

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.  


Parental leave as a tool for gender equality

Gerardo Meil, chair professor of Sociology
Jesús Rogero-García, lecturer in Sociology
Pedro Romero-Balsas, lecturer in Sociology,
Autonomous University of Madrid

Classification

Authors

Gerardo Meil, chair professor of Sociology
Jesús Rogero-García, lecturer in Sociology
Pedro Romero-Balsas, lecturer in Sociology ,
Autonomous University of Madrid

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Dossier

Families and Child Welfare

The 6th Dossier of the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” aims to provide elements for reflection on the diversity of family models in Spain and on how these can condition child welfare.

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Health Inequalities by Education Level and Gender in Spain

To what measure do differences in educational level and gender result in a greater or lesser degree of poverty? Despite the advances in healthcare, education and income that have taken place in Spain, inequalities persist based on people’s level of education.

Article

Social stratification and parental care: an analysis of the Spanish case

Good parenting is fundamental for children’s development. How does parental dedication differ between social groups? Knowing the answer is essential if we want an equal society.

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Women hold up half the sky, they deserve half the research

Dr. Katrien Maes, Chief Policy Officer,
League of European Research Universities (LERU)

Classification

Authors

Dr. Katrien Maes, Chief Policy Officer ,
League of European Research Universities (LERU)

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Parental leave as a tool for gender equality

Today, thanks to policies aimed at reconciling working life and family life, increasing numbers of men are taking parental leave to be able to raise their newborn children. These new policies represent progress towards gender equality, but in Spain a significant difference still exists between men and women in the usage they make of parental leave entitlements.

Article

Is Spain losing out on international investment in R&D?

On the global economic map drawn up by the financial crisis of 2008, the emerging countries are displacing the developed countries in the attracting of foreign investment in R&D. What factors influence this phenomenon and how does it affect countries such as Spain?

Infodata

How equitable is science?

This indicator offers a view of the distribution of university research work between men and women. Women represent just 21% of chair professors.

Infodata

Participation in studies related with culture by gender

In all the countries, courses related with culture involved more women than men in 2015. In Spain, 57.8% of students with culture-related qualifications were women.

You may also like

Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

Science

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Juan J. Fernández, Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Carlos III University, Madrid.

Classification

Authors

Juan J. Fernández, Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences , Carlos III University, Madrid.

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Chapter

Una propuesta de renta fiscal universal para España

La propuesta de una renta fiscal universal busca convertir el mínimo vital definido en el IRPF en una auténtica renta garantizada para asegurar a todos los ciudadanos un mínimo nivel de ingresos.

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

El cambio tecnológico parece favorecer un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. En este contexto, la renta básica universal se vislumbra como una medida para compensar a los más desfavorecidos por los cambios en los modos de producción.

Chapter

Los complementos salariales y la garantía de ingresos: posibilidades y límites

¿Se puede garantizar una renta a toda la sociedad asignando algún tipo de complemento a los salarios? Repasamos las principales características de los complementos salariales a partir de distintas experiencias, especialmente anglosajonas.

Chapter

Problemas de incentivos: renta básica universal versus prestación de ingresos mínimos

Análisis comparado de la renta básica y la prestación de ingresos mínimos. Se analizan los efectos de ambas sobre la oferta de trabajo, los costes de financiación o los problemas de englobar estas medidas en el contexto internacional. 

Chapter

Introducción

Introducción a cargo del coordinador y director del informe, Jordi Sevilla. Economista y exministro
de Administraciones Públicas (2004-2007).

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Low education level, low labour force participation

A hard-to-break vicious circle

Begoña Cueto, Professor of Applied Economics,
University of Oviedo

Classification

Authors

Begoña Cueto, Professor of Applied Economics ,
University of Oviedo

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Health Inequalities by Education Level and Gender in Spain

How much does Economic Hardship Contribute to Differences in Health by Education Level?

Aïda Solé-Auró, Department of Political and Social Sciences,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona

Classification

Authors

Aïda Solé-Auró, Department of Political and Social Sciences ,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Chapter

Una propuesta de renta fiscal universal para España

La propuesta de una renta fiscal universal busca convertir el mínimo vital definido en el IRPF en una auténtica renta garantizada para asegurar a todos los ciudadanos un mínimo nivel de ingresos.

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

El cambio tecnológico parece favorecer un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. En este contexto, la renta básica universal se vislumbra como una medida para compensar a los más desfavorecidos por los cambios en los modos de producción.

Chapter

Los complementos salariales y la garantía de ingresos: posibilidades y límites

¿Se puede garantizar una renta a toda la sociedad asignando algún tipo de complemento a los salarios? Repasamos las principales características de los complementos salariales a partir de distintas experiencias, especialmente anglosajonas.

Chapter

Problemas de incentivos: renta básica universal versus prestación de ingresos mínimos

Análisis comparado de la renta básica y la prestación de ingresos mínimos. Se analizan los efectos de ambas sobre la oferta de trabajo, los costes de financiación o los problemas de englobar estas medidas en el contexto internacional. 

Chapter

Introducción

Introducción a cargo del coordinador y director del informe, Jordi Sevilla. Economista y exministro
de Administraciones Públicas (2004-2007).

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


A Snapshot of Energy Poverty

Millions of people in Spain are unable to pay their energy bills

Sergio Tirado Herrero
RMIT University Europe / Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
José Luis López Fernández
Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
Luis Jiménez Meneses
Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)

Classification

Authors

Sergio Tirado Herrero
RMIT University Europe / Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
José Luis López Fernández
Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
Luis Jiménez Meneses
Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Chapter

Una propuesta de renta fiscal universal para España

La propuesta de una renta fiscal universal busca convertir el mínimo vital definido en el IRPF en una auténtica renta garantizada para asegurar a todos los ciudadanos un mínimo nivel de ingresos.

Chapter

Cambio tecnológico y renta básica

El cambio tecnológico parece favorecer un aumento de la polarización salarial y de la desigualdad. En este contexto, la renta básica universal se vislumbra como una medida para compensar a los más desfavorecidos por los cambios en los modos de producción.

Chapter

Los complementos salariales y la garantía de ingresos: posibilidades y límites

¿Se puede garantizar una renta a toda la sociedad asignando algún tipo de complemento a los salarios? Repasamos las principales características de los complementos salariales a partir de distintas experiencias, especialmente anglosajonas.

Chapter

Problemas de incentivos: renta básica universal versus prestación de ingresos mínimos

Análisis comparado de la renta básica y la prestación de ingresos mínimos. Se analizan los efectos de ambas sobre la oferta de trabajo, los costes de financiación o los problemas de englobar estas medidas en el contexto internacional. 

Chapter

Introducción

Introducción a cargo del coordinador y director del informe, Jordi Sevilla. Economista y exministro
de Administraciones Públicas (2004-2007).

You may also like

Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

Science

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Temporality, loss of work and educational performance

The intergenerational impact of temporality and parents' loss of work on the educational performance of their children

Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela, researcher,
Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics

Classification

Authors

Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela, researcher ,
Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

Article

Low education level, low labour force participation

The economic crisis has affected the labour market for young people in Spain, especially for those with a low level of education. This situation needs to be reverted to avoid many under-30s ultimately suffering from exclusion.

Article

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Historically, technology has transformed many professions. How will technological development affect future employment? The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses the situation in Spain with regard to “risk of computerisation”.

Infodata

Unemployment as a key factor in situations of poverty and social exclusion

Major differences exist in unemployment rates depending on age and nationality. Almost half of Spaniards aged below 25 years were unemployed in 2016.

Infodata

Labour market exclusion

The difference in unemployment rates between men and women in our country is larger than the European average. How has it evolved during the recent years of economic crisis?

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Social Inequality, Economic Crisis and Health in Spain

Elisa Díaz Martínez, Ideas Laboratory Director,
Fundación Alternativas

Classification

Authors

Elisa Díaz Martínez, Ideas Laboratory Director ,
Fundación Alternativas

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Article

Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

Article

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

Article

Low education level, low labour force participation

The economic crisis has affected the labour market for young people in Spain, especially for those with a low level of education. This situation needs to be reverted to avoid many under-30s ultimately suffering from exclusion.

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.


Social stratification and parental care: an analysis of the Spanish case

Pablo Gracia, Department of Sociology, University of Amsterdam

Classification

Authors

Pablo Gracia, Department of Sociology , University of Amsterdam

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Dossier

Families and Child Welfare

The 6th Dossier of the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” aims to provide elements for reflection on the diversity of family models in Spain and on how these can condition child welfare.

Article

Why are there fewer women in manual occupations?

Two out of every three workers in manual occupations are men, and women continue to be a minority in occupations such as construction, and industry. What factors influence segregation by gender in the labour market?

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Article

Parental leave as a tool for gender equality

Today, thanks to policies aimed at reconciling working life and family life, increasing numbers of men are taking parental leave to be able to raise their newborn children. These new policies represent progress towards gender equality, but in Spain a significant difference still exists between men and women in the usage they make of parental leave entitlements.

Article

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

Increasingly, the inhabitants of the suburbs have been choosing not to go and vote. What are the reasons that explain such extreme abstention by this collective in electoral processes? Has the new politics managed to draw greater participation from the more disadvantaged areas?

You may also like

Best practices

"la Caixa" Pro-Childhood Programme

"la Caixa" Pro-Childhood Programme

How can equal opportunities be guaranteed for children and young people at risk of social exclusion? We analyze the current results and future challenges posed by comprehensive education inside and outside of the school. 

Review

Actions against inequality for improving children's social opportunities

Actions against inequality for improving children's social opportunities

Social Inclusion Education

These two works analyse, from the angles of psychology and sociology respectively, the increase in social opportunities for underprivileged children. The first proposes acting on the environment and the second, on individual capabilities. 

Interview

“There is no real evidence to say this will be the first generation not to reach the standard of living of its parents”

“There is no real evidence to say this will be the first generation not to reach the standard of living of its parents”

Social Inclusion Education

Does education really remove social barriers? Robert Erikson analyses the degree of social mobility in advanced democracies.


The impact of culture and leisure on the happiness of Spanish people

Nela Filimon, Department of Economics, University of Girona

No unanimous definition of happiness exists, but the empirical evidence points to it depending on many factors, prominently including participation in cultural and leisure activities. The article contains a reflection on the individual and social dimensions of happiness and confirms the importance of connections with others.
Key points
  • 1
       Recent studies have shown that the distribution of the perception of happiness in Spain is similar to that of other developed countries (on a scale of 0-10, the Spanish average is 7.3).
  • 2
       Culture and leisure contribute to our happiness and we prefer to share many of these experiences with other people.
  • 3
       The empirical evidence shows that the simple presence of others – being surrounded by people at a concert or a museum – has a positive effect and, therefore, makes up happier.
  • 4
       The most recent empirical studies have confirmed the so-called “Easterlin paradox”, according to which (at least from a certain threshold) more income or more economic resources do not mean greater happiness.
Average happiness score and participation in cultural and leisure activities
Average happiness score and participation in cultural and leisure activities

The graph shows the impact of cultural and leisure activities on the happiness scale (from 0 to 10), as well as the percentage of Spaniards who participate in each activity. In Spain, all cultural and leisure activities obtain high average scores on the happiness scale, varying between 7.29 and 7.5.

What could be done to encourage participation in cultural and leisure activities?
  • Empirical evidence on consumption and happiness shows the importance of public support for the arts as a source of happiness and the promotion of policies aimed at facilitating access to culture.
  • Actions aimed, for example, at better reconciling working timetables in order to undertake more shared cultural activities can have positive effects on happiness.
  • In this sense, many cities, above all European ones, have a long tradition of support for art, acknowledging the recreational aspect of all culture, which must not be overlooked in public policies that are to be implemented in relation with happiness.

Classification

Author

Nela Filimon , Department of Economics, University of Girona

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Article

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

Article

Low education level, low labour force participation

The economic crisis has affected the labour market for young people in Spain, especially for those with a low level of education. This situation needs to be reverted to avoid many under-30s ultimately suffering from exclusion.

Article

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

Increasingly, the inhabitants of the suburbs have been choosing not to go and vote. What are the reasons that explain such extreme abstention by this collective in electoral processes? Has the new politics managed to draw greater participation from the more disadvantaged areas?

Article

Health Inequalities by Education Level and Gender in Spain

To what measure do differences in educational level and gender result in a greater or lesser degree of poverty? Despite the advances in healthcare, education and income that have taken place in Spain, inequalities persist based on people’s level of education.

You may also like

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Culture

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.


Participatory governance of cultural heritage

Margherita Sani,
Istituto per i Beni Artistici, Culturali e Naturali, Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

Classification

Authors

Margherita Sani ,
Istituto per i Beni Artistici, Culturali e Naturali, Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

Increasingly, the inhabitants of the suburbs have been choosing not to go and vote. What are the reasons that explain such extreme abstention by this collective in electoral processes? Has the new politics managed to draw greater participation from the more disadvantaged areas?

Article

How can legislation be used to promote public health?

In Spain, smoking and road accidents are responsible for an important loss of years and quality of life. Have the legal measures taken in recent years had any effect on this problem?

Article

Is Spain losing out on international investment in R&D?

On the global economic map drawn up by the financial crisis of 2008, the emerging countries are displacing the developed countries in the attracting of foreign investment in R&D. What factors influence this phenomenon and how does it affect countries such as Spain?

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.

Infodata

Participation in volunteer activities and active citizenship

To what point do elderly people participate in political activities? Some 6.5% of men and 4.3% of women aged between 65 and 74 years in our country participate actively in politics.

You may also like

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Culture

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.


Skills Acquisition in Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Students

Jorge Calero, Chair Professor of Applied Economics
Josep Oriol Escardíbul, Professor of Applied Economics,
University of Barcelona

Classification

Authors

Jorge Calero, Chair Professor of Applied Economics
Josep Oriol Escardíbul, Professor of Applied Economics ,
University of Barcelona

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

Article

Low education level, low labour force participation

The economic crisis has affected the labour market for young people in Spain, especially for those with a low level of education. This situation needs to be reverted to avoid many under-30s ultimately suffering from exclusion.

Article

Temporality, loss of work and educational performance

Parental job insecurity – due to unemployment or temporary employment – is directly related with a reduction in the academic performance of their children, and its effects are different depending on whether such insecurity is suffered by fathers or mothers.

Article

Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Pre-school education plays a fundamental role in improving reading comprehension capabilities in primary and secondary school, especially among immigrant students. This is shown by the results in the three countries analysed: Spain, Norway and Sweden. 

Infodata

Demographic determinants

Population changes can occur due to variations in the population caused by natural changes and migratory movements.

You may also like

Dossier

Education as a Social Elevator

Education as a Social Elevator

Education Social Inclusion

Education, research and knowledge are fundamental pillars for predicting a country’s future development. The Dossier  tackles the role of education as a social elevator and the presence of students of immigrant origin in the classroom.

Article

The Social Elevator

The Social Elevator

Education Social Inclusion

Despite its perception in recent years, education continues to be a very effective vehicle for social promotion, as well as a more significant factor than social origin in providing access to the professional classes.

Article

Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Education Social Inclusion

Pre-school education plays a fundamental role in improving reading comprehension capabilities in primary and secondary school, especially among immigrant students. This is shown by the results in the three countries analysed: Spain, Norway and Sweden. 


How to manage public R&D spending in times of budgetary austerity

Reinhilde Veugelers, Senior Fellow,
Bruegel Institute

Classification

Authors

Reinhilde Veugelers, Senior Fellow ,
Bruegel Institute

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

Increasingly, the inhabitants of the suburbs have been choosing not to go and vote. What are the reasons that explain such extreme abstention by this collective in electoral processes? Has the new politics managed to draw greater participation from the more disadvantaged areas?

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.

Article

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Historically, technology has transformed many professions. How will technological development affect future employment? The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses the situation in Spain with regard to “risk of computerisation”.

Article

How can legislation be used to promote public health?

In Spain, smoking and road accidents are responsible for an important loss of years and quality of life. Have the legal measures taken in recent years had any effect on this problem?

You may also like

Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

Science

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


How does social vulnerability affect childhood health?

Isabel Iguacel Azorín and Luis Alberto Moreno Aznar, GENUD group of the University of Zaragoza

Children’s health is not only correlated with the education, professions and income of their parents, as was already known. It is also correlated with other socioeconomic factors: family structure, the geographical origin of their parents, their employment – or unemployment – situation, and the quantity and quality of their family’s social networks. Children that grow up in more vulnerable families have more probabilities of growing up with worse physical and mental health.
Key points
  • 1
       One of the most important conditioning factors of health are lifestyles and, in particular, food patterns. Both the former and the latter have a great deal to do with socioeconomic inequalities.
  • 2
       A scant social support network is the most relevant variable with respect to health problems, especially when the social isolation of parents persists over time. It is related with psychosocial problems, but also with diet, exercise, a sedentary lifestyle or overweight.
  • 3
       An accumulation of social vulnerabilities increases the risk of unhealthy lifestyles. Children aged 6 years growing up in households with more than three socioeconomic factors against them (also called vulnerabilities), show an overweight and obesity rate that is over double that of other children.
  • 4
       For children born in Spain, the data show that gypsy children and those with Latin American parents have, respectively, 4 and 3 times more possibilities of suffering from overweight or obesity at the age of 6 years than children with non-gypsy parents.
  • 5
       Children whose parents are of immigrant origin or have no work spend more time in front of a screen and participate less in sports activities than other children.
Relationship between vulnerabilities and unhealthy diet

Independently of classical socioeconomic indicators (education, profession, income) there are also differences in health associated with other social vulnerabilities. Some 65.1%  of children whose parents stated that they had a poor social network followed a non-healthy pattern, versus 38.7% of young people whose parents had a broad social network. Some 57.4% of children with unemployed parents also followed this pattern, against 46% with parents with work.

The health gradient

• People’s health and their socioeconomic situation are correlated. Specifically, the better their socioeconomic situation, the better their health; and the worse their situation, the worse their health. This is a correlation that arises in Spain as in all other countries worldwide, independently of average income levels. This is called the socioeconomic gradient of health and it runs from the apex to the base of the socioeconomic spectrum, affecting the entire population. Of course, children do not escape this phenomenon.

• Knowing the causes of the socioeconomic gradient is the first step towards resolving health inequalities. Interventions in this sense should take into account the ethnic, social and economic diversities to reduce inequalities in children’s health.

Classification

Authors

Isabel Iguacel Azorín and Luis Alberto Moreno Aznar , GENUD group of the University of Zaragoza

Tags

Thematics

Related contents

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Article

The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)

Between the years 2007 and 2013, the difficulties faced in employment, housing and health worsened considerably in Spain. This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” reflects on the problems that have intensified social exclusion which affects, above all, the younger population.

Article

Social Inequality, Economic Crisis and Health in Spain

Health inequalities exist between Spanish individuals that are related to their socioeconomic situation. An analysis of the effects on social groups would allow effective policies to be designed to combat this inequality. 

Article

Health Inequalities by Education Level and Gender in Spain

To what measure do differences in educational level and gender result in a greater or lesser degree of poverty? Despite the advances in healthcare, education and income that have taken place in Spain, inequalities persist based on people’s level of education.

Article

The Social Elevator

Despite its perception in recent years, education continues to be a very effective vehicle for social promotion, as well as a more significant factor than social origin in providing access to the professional classes.

You may also like

Report

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Reforzar el bienestar social: del ingreso mínimo a la renta básica

Social Inclusion

Este informe recoge el análisis sobre la situación social en España y sobre la capacidad de las ayudas y subsidios existentes para garantizar unos ingresos mínimos a todos los ciudadanos, con el objetivo de reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad.

Report

Housing

Housing

Social Inclusion

What social challenges does decent housing represent in Spain? This report analyses three challenges in this field: access, conditions and energy needs.

Dossier

Housing: right or commodity?

Housing: right or commodity?

Social Inclusion

The seventh Dossier from the Social Observatory of ”la Caixa” focuses on the residential insecurity faced by society’s most vulnerable groups, and access to housing for young people.