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Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Januray 2018

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Find out all about the Palau Macaya's programme of events

Find out all about the Palau Macaya's programme of events

January 2019

The Palau Macaya invites you to reflect on the challenges faced by our society today. Will you join us?

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And we will inform you of the publications by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” that may be of interest to you: in depth articles, interviews and reviews that will bring you closer to the social reality through the best experts in each field.

Methodological Appendix

Section

Methodological Appendix

October 2018

Social Inclusion

Want to know how we calculated these indicators? See our Methodological Appendix for details.

Public policies

Section

Public policies

October 2018

Social Inclusion

Analysis of indicators on expenditure on policies for fighting poverty, adaptation of benefits and the reduction in poverty due to monetary benefits. The information on the effects of these policies is limited, with little homogeneity between countries, but it contributes valuable conclusions.

The situation in Europe

Section

The situation in Europe

October 2018

Social Inclusion

Thanks to the results of the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions, which enable all countries in the EU to be compared, we know that Spain occupies, with respect to indicators on material living conditions, a significantly lower position to that which it occupies in the comparison by GDP.

The situation in Spain

Section

The situation in Spain

October 2018

Social Inclusion

An analysis of the economic situation of Spanish households through indicators on sources of income, financial balance and risk of poverty. From economic vulnerability to material deprivation, and including over-indebtedness, this snapshot explains the problems that exist. 

Executive summary and conclusions

Section

Executive summary and conclusions

October 2018

Social Inclusion

Material living conditions have worsened since the year 20014 and the short period of economic recovery has barely contributed to any improvement. The comparison situates Spain among the countries at the tail of the EU and public policies have not compensated for the effects of the crisis on households and people.

Youth unemployment and poverty: a structural problem?

Dossier

Youth unemployment and poverty: a structural problem?

April 2017

Social Inclusion

The relationship between young people and the labour market is the central theme of this second Dossier from the “la Caixa” Social Observatory. The effect of the economic crisis on youth unemployment in the countries in our area will be a key factor to take into account when profiling the welfare states of tomorrow.

Families and Child Welfare

Dossier

Families and Child Welfare

December 2018

Social Inclusion

The 6th Dossier of the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” aims to provide elements for reflection on the diversity of family models in Spain and on how these can condition child welfare.

Education as a Social Elevator

Dossier

Education as a Social Elevator

September 2016

Education Social Inclusion

Education, research and knowledge are fundamental pillars for predicting a country’s future development. The Dossier  tackles the role of education as a social elevator and the presence of students of immigrant origin in the classroom.

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

September 2017

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

January 2018

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Do women have fewer opportunities to be hired?

Article

Do women have fewer opportunities to be hired?

March 2019

Social Inclusion
M. José González, Universitat Pompeu Fabra; Clara Cortina, Universitat Pompeu Fabra; Jorge Rodríguez, Universitat Pompeu Fabra

An experiment in gender discrimination confirms that, under equal conditions, women have 30% fewer probabilities of being invited to a job interview.

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

October 2017

Social Inclusion
Silvia Avram, University of Essex; Olga Cantó, University of Alcalá and Equalitas network

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

September 2017

Social Inclusion
Elisenda Rentería, Centre for Demographic Studies researcher; Rosario Scandurra, UB; Guadalupe Souto, UAB; Concepció Patxot, UB

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

August 2017

Social Inclusion
Joan Costa-Font, London School of Economics

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

Article

Comparative Evolution of Child, Youth and Elderly Poverty in Europe

May 2017

Social Inclusion
Juan J. Fernández, Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Carlos III University, Madrid.

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Article

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

April 2017

Social Inclusion
Almudena Moreno, Professor of Sociology,
University of Valladolid

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

Low education level, low labour force participation

Article

Low education level, low labour force participation

April 2017

Social Inclusion
Begoña Cueto, Professor of Applied Economics,
University of Oviedo

The economic crisis has affected the labour market for young people in Spain, especially for those with a low level of education. This situation needs to be reverted to avoid many under-30s ultimately suffering from exclusion.

The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)

Article

The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)

April 2017

Social Inclusion
Nerea Zugasti, Lecturer at the Department of Social Work of the Public University of Navarra

Between the years 2007 and 2013, the difficulties faced in employment, housing and health worsened considerably in Spain. This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” reflects on the problems that have intensified social exclusion which affects, above all, the younger population.

Parental leave as a tool for gender equality

Article

Parental leave as a tool for gender equality

February 2017

Social Inclusion
Gerardo Meil, chair professor of Sociology
Jesús Rogero-García, lecturer in Sociology
Pedro Romero-Balsas, lecturer in Sociology,
Autonomous University of Madrid

Today, thanks to policies aimed at reconciling working life and family life, increasing numbers of men are taking parental leave to be able to raise their newborn children. These new policies represent progress towards gender equality, but in Spain a significant difference still exists between men and women in the usage they make of parental leave entitlements.

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

Article

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

December 2016

Social Inclusion

Braulio Gómez, Researcher in Political Science at the University of Deusto
Manuel Trujillo, Coordinator of the Statistics Unit at the Advanced Social Studies Institute (IESA-CSIC)

Increasingly, the inhabitants of the suburbs have been choosing not to go and vote. What are the reasons that explain such extreme abstention by this collective in electoral processes? Has the new politics managed to draw greater participation from the more disadvantaged areas?

Social Inequality, Economic Crisis and Health in Spain

Article

Social Inequality, Economic Crisis and Health in Spain

September 2016

Social Inclusion
Elisa Díaz Martínez, Ideas Laboratory Director,
Fundación Alternativas

Health inequalities exist between Spanish individuals that are related to their socioeconomic situation. An analysis of the effects on social groups would allow effective policies to be designed to combat this inequality. 

Temporality, loss of work and educational performance

Article

Temporality, loss of work and educational performance

Semptembre 2016

Social Inclusion
Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela, researcher,
Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics

Parental job insecurity – due to unemployment or temporary employment – is directly related with a reduction in the academic performance of their children, and its effects are different depending on whether such insecurity is suffered by fathers or mothers.

Health Inequalities by Education Level and Gender in Spain

Article

Health Inequalities by Education Level and Gender in Spain

September 2016

Social Inclusion
Aïda Solé-Auró, Department of Political and Social Sciences,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona

To what measure do differences in educational level and gender result in a greater or lesser degree of poverty? Despite the advances in healthcare, education and income that have taken place in Spain, inequalities persist based on people’s level of education.

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Article

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

January 2019

Education
Andreu Lope, Autonomous University of Barcelona

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.  

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

Article

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

April 2017

Education
María Ramos, Post-doctoral researcher at the Carlos III University of Madrid

The economic crisis experienced by Spain has led to increasing numbers of young people opting to prolong their education given the lack of job prospects. This fact has caused overqualification among young people and the consolidation of unemployment.

Educational expansion and the partial devaluation of credentials

Article

Educational expansion and the partial devaluation of credentials

October 2016

Education
Luis Ortiz, Professor of Political and Social Sciences
Jorge Rodríguez Menés, Professor of Political and Social Sciences,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Has mass access of Spaniards to intermediate and higher education been associated with a deterioration in the quality of educational qualifications, as some international bodies have warned?   

The Social Elevator

Article

The Social Elevator

September 2016

Education Social Inclusion
Miguel Requena, Chair Professor of Sociology,
UNED

Despite its perception in recent years, education continues to be a very effective vehicle for social promotion, as well as a more significant factor than social origin in providing access to the professional classes.

Social stratification and parental care: an analysis of the Spanish case

Article

Social stratification and parental care: an analysis of the Spanish case

September 2016

Social Inclusion Education
Pablo Gracia, Department of Sociology, University of Amsterdam

Good parenting is fundamental for children’s development. How does parental dedication differ between social groups? Knowing the answer is essential if we want an equal society.

Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Article

Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Setembre 2016

Education Social Inclusion
Johanna Dämmrich, European University Institute

Pre-school education plays a fundamental role in improving reading comprehension capabilities in primary and secondary school, especially among immigrant students. This is shown by the results in the three countries analysed: Spain, Norway and Sweden. 

Do we take the medication that doctors prescribe for us?

Article

Do we take the medication that doctors prescribe for us?

March 2018

Science
Ignacio Aznar Lou, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu; María Rubio Valera, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu

Not following the treatments prescribed in primary healthcare has an economic impact, due to higher probabilities of absence from work and of the use of emergency healthcare services. We analyse this situation.

Is research responding to health needs?

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

March 2018

Science
Ismael Ràfols, Ingenio (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politècnica de València; Alfredo Yegros, University of Leiden (Netherlands)

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Article

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

February 2018

Science
Ester Martínez-Ros, University Carlos III de Madrid

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Article

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

November 2017

Science
Aina Gallego, Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals

Historically, technology has transformed many professions. How will technological development affect future employment? The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses the situation in Spain with regard to “risk of computerisation”.

How can legislation be used to promote public health?

Article

How can legislation be used to promote public health?

October 2017

Science
Jaime Pinilla, senior lecturer of Applied Economics University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

In Spain, smoking and road accidents are responsible for an important loss of years and quality of life. Have the legal measures taken in recent years had any effect on this problem?

Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

Article

Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

September 2017

Science
Luis Sanz Menéndez and Laura Cruz Castro, Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Science is a very relevant activity in economic terms, which also has a very favourable social perception. However, Spain invests less in R&D than the rest of the European countries, confirming a gap between citizens' attitudes and the will of politicians and businesses.

Women hold up half the sky, they deserve half the research

Article

Women hold up half the sky, they deserve half the research

September 2016

Science
Dr. Katrien Maes, Chief Policy Officer,
League of European Research Universities (LERU)

Increasingly, certain areas of research – such as biomedicine – incorporate the sex and gender dimension into their projects. However, despite its relevance, this question continues to be a pending assignment in the majority of cases.

A Snapshot of Energy Poverty

Article

A Snapshot of Energy Poverty

September 2016

Science
Sergio Tirado Herrero
RMIT University Europe / Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
José Luis López Fernández
Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)
Luis Jiménez Meneses
Asociación de Ciencias Ambientales (Environmental Sciences Association – ACA)

Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon since the beginning of the crisis in 2008 and the highest incidence is found in certain socioeconomic groups. What are the consequences of this reality? What structural measures would be needed to tackle this problem?

Is Spain losing out on international investment in R&D?

Article

Is Spain losing out on international investment in R&D?

September 2017

Science
Paloma Miravitlles, Fariza Achcaoucaou, Ana Núñez-Carballosa and Laura Guitart-Tarrés, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Barcelona

On the global economic map drawn up by the financial crisis of 2008, the emerging countries are displacing the developed countries in the attracting of foreign investment in R&D. What factors influence this phenomenon and how does it affect countries such as Spain?

Climate Change and Human Rights

Article

Climate Change and Human Rights

September 2016

Science
John H. Knox, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the issue of the human rights and the environment,
Wake Forest University (United States)

John Knox, United Nations Special Rapporteur on human rights and the environment, explains how climate change is endangering the right to life, health, water, food, housing, development and self-determination. 

Want to be kept informed about all the Social Observatory’s latest news?

Want to be kept informed about all the Social Observatory’s latest news?

Subscribe to our newsletter and we’ll inform you about publications that may be of interest to you: in-depth articles, interviews and reviews that will give you a close-up view of the social reality through the eyes of the finest experts in each field.

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

January 2018

Culture
Juan Prieto Rodríguez, María José Pérez Villadóniga and Sara Suárez Fernández, University of Oviedo

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.

On music, happiness and health. What do we know?

Article

On music, happiness and health. What do we know?

June 2017

Culture
Antonio Estache and Victor Ginsburgh, European Center for Advanced Research in Economics and Statistics (ECARES), Université libre de Bruxelles.

How does music influence our wellbeing? This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” describes how various researchers, healthcare practitioners and other professionals interpret the relationship that exists between music and happiness.

Cultural Participation in Spain: Antecedents and Opportunities

Article

Cultural Participation in Spain: Antecedents and Opportunities

May 2017

Culture
Tally Katz-Gerro, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Haifa; Martin Falk, Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)

The level of cultural participation in our country is similar to that of other European countries, with the exception of the Nordic countries. From a comparative perspective, this article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” analyses the effects of education level, age, income and some variables of the employment situation on attendance rates.

Attendance at Publicly-Funded Arts Events

Article

Attendance at Publicly-Funded Arts Events

September 2016

Culture
John W. O’Hagan
Trinity College Dublin 2

What is the cause behind such a high disparity in the participation rates in cultural offerings financed using public funds? Does this have a direct relationship with the population’s level of education?


 

Science, Innovation and Environment Indicators

Science, Innovation and Environment Indicators

Research is a potential driving force for promoting economic growth and social welfare. What is the relative effort in research that different countries make? What economic activities are related to that research? This set of indicators provides an introduction to the history of research and innovation in various countries.

 

Selection of science indicators:


Ismael Ràfols, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV)

Education Indicators

Education Indicators

Where is education heading? In this section, a series of indicators are presented that are key to understanding the situation of education in our society. The majority have been built using data from international databases such as the European Social Survey (ESS) or the PISA Report, among others.

 

Selection and graph construction of education indicators:
 

Anna Villarroya, University of Barcelona
Daniela Bellani, Pompeu Fabra University

 

Culture Indicators

Culture Indicators

How is our country positioned in cultural questions? Understanding culture in its broadest form, the indicators offered in this section allow us to interpret how culture is interrelated, within a European context, with today’s social and economic reality.

 

Selection and development of culture indicators:

 

Anna Villarroya, University of Barcelona
Victoria Ateca-Amestoy and Victoria Rusu, University of the Basque Country

 

Social Inclusion Indicators

Social Inclusion Indicators

What is the country’s socioeconomic situation? This section contains a series of indicators that offer a current-day snapshot of the relationship between the economy and people, analysing aspects such as the composition of households or labour market access in comparison with the societies of peer countries.

 

Selection and graph construction of social inclusion indicators:
 
Anna Villarroya, University of Barcelona
Daniela Bellani, Pompeu Fabra University

Barriers to cultural participation according to household type

Infodata

Barriers to cultural participation according to household type

December 2018

Social Inclusion

16.5% of families with children in the home cannot afford to enjoy cultural activities, a percentage that increases to 20.3% in the case of single-parent households. 

Participation in cultural activities

Infodata

Participation in cultural activities

December 2018

Social Inclusion

Do families with children attend cultural activities more  often? This indicator shows the percentage of cultural participation according to household type. 

Are families with children in the household happier?

Infodata

Are families with children in the household happier?

December 2018

Social Inclusion

Which homes are the happiest? Families with children state that they are happier than those without children to look after.

Concentration of low-intensity employment in single-parent households.

Infodata

Concentration of low-intensity employment in single-parent households.

December 2018

Social Inclusion

The highest percentage of households with very low employment intensity stands at 24.6% and corresponds to single-parent households. What happens with other households?

Difficulties of families related with housing

Infodata

Difficulties of families related with housing

December 2018

Social Inclusion

54.5% of single-parent households have no capacity to tackle unforeseen expenses. What type of material shortages do other households have? 

What type of housing do Spanish families live in?

Infodata

What type of housing do Spanish families live in?

December 2018

Social Inclusion

80.1% of households with two adults and no children live in an owned home. In the case of single-parent households, this percentage falls to 65%.

Situation of households and performance of students

Infodata

Situation of households and performance of students

December 2018

Social Inclusion

We analyse the difference between the average scores in reading and mathematics for pupils according to their family income levels. Are we above or below neighbouring countries?

What are the main reasons that make access to services provided by nurseries difficult?

Infodata

What are the main reasons that make access to services provided by nurseries difficult?

December 2018

Social Inclusion

Economic reasons, availability of places, distance, timetable flexibility, etc. What factors determine access to nurseries?

Participation in volunteer activities and active citizenship

Infodata

Participation in volunteer activities and active citizenship

May 2018

Social Inclusion

To what point do elderly people participate in political activities? Some 6.5% of men and 4.3% of women aged between 65 and 74 years in our country participate actively in politics.

Young people and wellbeing

Infodata

Young people and wellbeing

April 2017

Social Inclusion

The level of satisfaction with life varies according to age groups. The younger population tends to show higher levels of satisfaction.

Young people and participation

Infodata

Young people and participation

April 2017

Social Inclusion

What is the implication of young people in political activities and volunteering? In 2015, one in every ten young people took part in volunteering activities through an organisation.

Young people and family relationships

Infodata

Young people and family relationships

April 2017

Social Inclusion

How has the economic situation changed between 2005 and 2015 for young people who live with their parents? Young men leave the parental home nearly two years later than young women.

Young people and demographic trends

Infodata

Young people and demographic trends

April 2017

Social Inclusion

What percentage of the total represents the child and youth population? In the year 2015, a third of the Spanish population was aged below 30 years.

The challenge of climate change

Infodata

The challenge of climate change

January 2018

Science

How has the Earth’s average temperature evolved since 1880? The years 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 were the hottest on record.

Unemployment as a key factor in situations of poverty and social exclusion

Infodata

Unemployment as a key factor in situations of poverty and social exclusion

January 2018

Social Inclusion

Major differences exist in unemployment rates depending on age and nationality. Almost half of Spaniards aged below 25 years were unemployed in 2016.

Material Deprivation and Work Intensity

Infodata

Material Deprivation and Work Intensity

Setembre 2016

Social Inclusion

In today’s society, certain products or services are considered as necessary to lead an adequate life in line with the current social reality. The impossibility of accessing some of these products or services is used as an indicator of material deprivation. 

In what type of households do elderly people live?

Infodata

In what type of households do elderly people live?

May 2018

Social Inclusion

What are the most common living arrangements for elderly people? In Spain, the percentage of those living alone or with their partner is lower in comparison with our peer countries.

Public investment in elderly people

Infodata

Public investment in elderly people

May 2018

Social Inclusion

What percentage of public spending is allocated to elderly people? The tendency in European countries has been to increase the weight of the resources allocated to this group.

Dependence for personal care

Infodata

Dependence for personal care

May 2018

Social Inclusion

How many people aged over 65 years have difficulties in performing some of the basic activities of everyday life? In our country, 33% of people aged over 65 years have problems washing themselves independently.

Active Ageing Index

Infodata

Active Ageing Index

May 2018

Social Inclusion

This indicator measures the level of independence in elderly people; this is based on variables such as occupation, social participation, independent living and the capacity for healthy ageing.

Demographic determinants

Infodata

Demographic determinants

January 2018

Social Inclusion

Population changes can occur due to variations in the population caused by natural changes and migratory movements.

Inequality in income distribution

Infodata

Inequality in income distribution

January 2018

Social Inclusion

What has been the effect of social transfers in terms of redistributing wealth and combating inequalities in Spain and in the EU?

Labour market exclusion

Infodata

Labour market exclusion

May 2018

Social Inclusion

The difference in unemployment rates between men and women in our country is larger than the European average. How has it evolved during the recent years of economic crisis?

Level of economic development

Infodata

Level of economic development

January 2018

Social Inclusion

The GDP in purchasing power standards allows a more exact comparison of the level of economic development between countries. Since the year 2010, GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards in Spain has stood at below the European average.

Early Childhood Education

Infodata

Early Childhood Education

September 2016

Education Social Inclusion

With the aim of improving parental access to the labour market, the Council of Europe is working towards all countries in the European Union achieving 33% of children enrolled in pre-school education.

Education and Salaries

Infodata

Education and Salaries

September 2016

Education Social Inclusion

The higher the level of education, the bigger the salary? Effectively, in 2015, the earnings of people with higher education qualifications were, on average, nearly 38% higher than those of people who had only completed intermediate education.

Education and Immigration

Infodata

Education and Immigration

September 2016

Education Social Inclusion

How many students of immigrant origin are enrolled in the education system? During the 2014-2015 academic year in Spain, they represented 8.6% of total students, a low proportion in comparison with many other European countries

Structure of the Education System

Infodata

Structure of the Education System

September 2016

Education

Sometimes it is difficult to translate the language of international bodies that we use on a daily basis. What are the equivalences between the ISCED educational levels used by the UNESCO and the system used in Spain?

Science, Innovation and Environment Indicators

Barometer

Science, Innovation and Environment Indicators

September 2016

Science

Research is a potential driving force for promoting economic growth and social welfare. What is the relative effort in research that different countries make? What economic activities are related to that research? This set of indicators provides an introduction to the history of research and innovation in various countries.

Culture Indicators

Barometer

Culture Indicators

September 2016

Culture

How is our country positioned in cultural questions? Understanding culture in its broadest form, the indicators presented by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” in this section allow us to interpret how culture is interrelated, within a European context, with today’s social and economic reality.

Social Inclusion Indicators

Barometer

Social Inclusion Indicators

September 2016

Social Inclusion

What is the country’s socioeconomic situation? The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” includes in this section a series of indicators that offer a current-day snapshot of the relationship between the economy and people, analysing aspects such as the composition of households or labour market access in comparison with the societies of peer countries.

Context Indicators

Barometer

Context Indicators

September 2016

Using a series of basic indicators and synthetic indicators on social, demographic and economic issues, this section of the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” offers a view in figures of the social reality of Spain within the European and international context.

How much do countries invest in R&D?

Infodata

How much do countries invest in R&D?

September 2017

Science

How much do countries invest in R&D? In more dynamic economies, the business sector is the major funder, whereas in Southern Europe, the governments lead investment.

Academic performance of students in sciences and attitudes towards science

Infodata

Academic performance of students in sciences and attitudes towards science

September 2017

Science

How many students aged over 15 years have excellent results in sciences and how many hope to undertake a research-related career? In 2015, some 28.6% of Spanish students wanted to work in a scientific profession.

Intensive use of human capital

Infodata

Intensive use of human capital

September 2017

Science

What is the percentage of people employed in knowledge-intensive activities? In Spain, approximately a third of the population, slightly below the European average.

How equitable is science?

Infodata

How equitable is science?

September 2017

Science

This indicator offers a view of the distribution of university research work between men and women. Women represent just 21% of chair professors.

Open access to science

Infodata

Open access to science

September 2017

Science

Open Access means the online and free availability of the results of research. In Spain, the proportion of accessible and restriction-free documents stands above the European Union average.

What does society think of science and technology?

Infodata

What does society think of science and technology?

September 2017

Science

In what areas will science and technological innovation have a positive impact in the next 15 years? The view of citizens.

Participation in studies related with culture by gender

Infodata

Participation in studies related with culture by gender

January 2018

Culture

In all the countries, courses related with culture involved more women than men in 2015. In Spain, 57.8% of students with culture-related qualifications were women.