Involuntary and dependent self-employment in Spain

Article

Involuntary and dependent self-employment in Spain

February 2021

Social Inclusion
Raquel Carrasco, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid;Virginia Hernanz, Universidad de Alcalá

Involuntary self-employment in Spain (21.7% of self-employed people) exceeded the European average (16.9%) in 2017. This study indicates that involuntary self-employment is common among young people and people with a low educational level.

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