Involuntary and dependent self-employment in Spain

Article

Involuntary and dependent self-employment in Spain

February 2021

Social Inclusion
Raquel Carrasco, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid;Virginia Hernanz, Universidad de Alcalá

Involuntary self-employment in Spain (21.7% of self-employed people) exceeded the European average (16.9%) in 2017. This study indicates that involuntary self-employment is common among young people and people with a low educational level.

Being a micro-influencer: an unsustainable activity for young people

Article

Being a micro-influencer: an unsustainable activity for young people

February 2021

Social Inclusion
Santiago Giraldo-Luque, Isabel Villegas-Simón, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona;Alessandro Bernardi, Social Elephants;Cristina Fernández-Rovira, Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya

Does  it pay to be a micro-influencer? Some 62% of those interviewed in this study are dissatisfied with their earnings in relation to the impact that they generate in their communities.

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