New forms of cultural participation

Infodata

New forms of cultural participation

January 2018

Culture

Income level influences habits in cultural participation online. What happens in our peer countries?

Amateur artistic practices

Infodata

Amateur artistic practices

January 2018

Culture

Playing an instrument, singing, photography... In 2015, some 14.2% of citizens undertook some amateur artistic activity at least once per week.

Public investment in culture

Infodata

Public investment in culture

January 2018

Culture

How much do countries invest in culture? In the last decade, the governmental authorities in Spain have reduced the funding of cultural services.

Employment in the cultural sector

Infodata

Employment in the cultural sector

January 2018

Culture

How many people work in the cultural sector? In 2015, the cultural sector employed 2.5% of the population of Spain. This figure is lower than the European average.

Economic activity generated in the cultural sector

Infodata

Economic activity generated in the cultural sector

January 2018

Culture

What is the impact of cultural activity on the economy? In 2014, services companies in Spain working in the cultural activity sector represented 3.73% of the total economy.

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

January 2018

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Participation in studies related with culture by gender

Infodata

Participation in studies related with culture by gender

January 2018

Culture

In all the countries, courses related with culture involved more women than men in 2015. In Spain, 57.8% of students with culture-related qualifications were women.

The challenge of climate change

Infodata

The challenge of climate change

January 2018

Science

How has the Earth’s average temperature evolved since 1880? The years 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 were the hottest on record.

Limitations to the training of human capital and possibilities of economic growth and social wellbeing

Infodata

Limitations to the training of human capital and possibilities of economic growth and social wellbeing

January 2018

What is the rate for early leaving of education and training by sex? The Europe 2020 Strategy has a target of 15%.

Unemployment as a key factor in situations of poverty and social exclusion

Infodata

Unemployment as a key factor in situations of poverty and social exclusion

January 2018

Social Inclusion

Major differences exist in unemployment rates depending on age and nationality. Almost half of Spaniards aged below 25 years were unemployed in 2016.

The impact of culture and leisure on the happiness of Spanish people

Article

The impact of culture and leisure on the happiness of Spanish people

January 2018

Culture
Nela Filimon, Department of Economics, University of Girona

Happiness depends on many factors, prominently including participation in cultural and leisure activities. This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" reflects on this theory in relation to the individual and social dimensions of culture.

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

January 2018

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Article

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

January 2018

Culture
Juan Prieto Rodríguez, María José Pérez Villadóniga and Sara Suárez Fernández, University of Oviedo

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.

Perspectives on cultural participation in Europe

Review

Perspectives on cultural participation in Europe

January 2018

Culture
Antonio Ariño Villarroya, University of Valencia

This book, reviewed for the Social Observatory of "la Caixa", aims to measure participation in cultural activities on a European level, as well as promote them to contribute to social inclusion and active citizenship.

“One of the functions of art is to open up debates in society”

Interview

“One of the functions of art is to open up debates in society”

January 2018

Culture
Jen Snowball, Professor, Department of Economics and Economic History, Rhodes University

In this interview with the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" Jen Snowball shares her reflections on the value created by the art and culture sector and the concept of “culturally sustainable development”.

CaixaEscena

Best practices

CaixaEscena

January 2018

Culture
Jaume Colomer, cultural management consultant, director of Bissap and associate professor at the UB

A performing arts-based programme that integrates social, educational and cultural action.

To what extent is it considered important to have new ideas and be creative?

Infodata

To what extent is it considered important to have new ideas and be creative?

January 2018

Culture

To what point is it considered important to have new ideas and to be creative? In 2014, some 62% of Spanish citizens considered it was important to have new ideas and be creative.

Infodata

To what extent is it considered important to understand people who are different?

January 2018

Culture

The importance given by citizens to the capacity for understanding people who are different varies in the different European countries. In 2014, some 74.5% of the Spanish population considered it was important to understand people who are different.

What importance does culture have when planning holidays?

Infodata

What importance does culture have when planning holidays?

January 2018

Culture

Culture was one of the main reasons for 29% of the Spanish population when it came to planning holiday travel in 2015. Three points above the European average.

Opinion regarding the presence of immigrants in the country’s cultural life

Infodata

Opinion regarding the presence of immigrants in the country’s cultural life

January 2018

Culture

How does the presence of immigrants influence the country’s cultural life? In 2014, some 49% of Spanish people considered that the presence of immigrants enriched the country’s cultural life.

Difficulty in accessing cultural services

Infodata

Difficulty in accessing cultural services

January 2018

Culture

Reasons such as timings and distance may complicate the access of citizens to cultural spaces. In 2012, some 32% of the population of Spain considered it was difficult to access cultural services, 4 points higher than the European average.

Satisfaction with cultural spaces in European cities

Infodata

Satisfaction with cultural spaces in European cities

January 2018

Culture

What is the opinion of citizens regarding the cultural spaces available in their places of residence? This indicator shows in which European cities the residents appear to be most satisfied.

Between complacency and a self-defeating dream

Review

Between complacency and a self-defeating dream

November 2017

Culture
Ruth Towse, Bournemouth University, United Kingdom

The two books reviewed share concerns regarding the decline of the USA and show the problems facing the country. From different perspectives, both reach the same diagnosis regarding American society and the danger that threatens democracy.

«Creative work favours innovation and, therefore, growth»

Interview

«Creative work favours innovation and, therefore, growth»

November 2017

Culture
Hasan Bakhshi, Director de Industrias Creativas, NESTA

In this interview granted to the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, Hasan Bakhshi shares his reflections on the creative economy and on the value of culture as an element that generates wellbeing, wealth and social cohesion.

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

Article

Employment situation and family background in Europe during the crisis: we are not all equal

October 2017

Social Inclusion
Silvia Avram, University of Essex;Olga Cantó, University of Alcalá and Equalitas network

What is the relationship between social background and quality of employment? We analyse whether, independently of education, family background is a conditioning factor in finding a good job and whether the crisis has influenced this situation.

How can legislation be used to promote public health?

Article

How can legislation be used to promote public health?

October 2017

Science
Jaime Pinilla, senior lecturer of Applied Economics University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

In Spain, smoking and road accidents are responsible for an important loss of years and quality of life. Have the legal measures taken in recent years had any effect on this problem?

CaixaImpulse

Best practices

CaixaImpulse

September 2017

Science
Roger Gomis, ICREA Researcher at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine Barcelona and founder of Inbiomotion, S.L.

A programme that transfers innovative health research results to society by promoting the creation of companies, products and services.

The State and the Innovation Effort

Review

The State and the Innovation Effort

September 2017

Science
Melanie Smallman, University College, London

From an economic viewpoint, innovation is considered to be an engine of growth because of its capacity to generate wealth and employment, a focus that has gained prominence since the start of the financial crisis in 2008. This review by the “la Caixa” Social Observatory comments on two books that analyse this issue from very different perspectives. 

The present and the future lie in science and innovation

Interview

The present and the future lie in science and innovation

September 2017

Science
Spain’s Secretary of State for Research, Development and Innovation

Spain’s Secretary of State for Research, Development and Innovation, Carmen Vela, describes in this interview the strengths of the current system and highlights those fronts being worked on with regard to the medium and long term.

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

Article

Women and men, consumption and production over the life course. An unequal relationship

September 2017

Social Inclusion
Elisenda Rentería, Centre for Demographic Studies researcher;Rosario Scandurra, UB;Guadalupe Souto, UAB;Concepció Patxot, UB

A large difference exists between the productive activity of men and women, especially when the latter are mothers and devote considerable time to managing the household and caring for children and dependent elders.

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

Article

Occupations in transformation: who will be affected by technological change?

September 2017

Science
Aina Gallego, Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals

Historically, technology has transformed many professions. How will technological development affect future employment? The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses the situation in Spain with regard to “risk of computerisation”.

Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

Article

Research in Spain: the attitudes of companies, Governments and citizens

September 2017

Science
Luis Sanz Menéndez and Laura Cruz Castro, Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Science is a very relevant activity in economic terms, which also has a very favourable social perception. However, Spain invests less in R&D than the rest of the European countries, confirming a gap between citizens' attitudes and the will of politicians and businesses.

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Dossier

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

September 2017

Science

Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

Is Spain losing out on international investment in R&D?

Article

Is Spain losing out on international investment in R&D?

September 2017

Science
Paloma Miravitlles, Fariza Achcaoucaou, Ana Núñez-Carballosa and Laura Guitart-Tarrés, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Barcelona

On the global economic map drawn up by the financial crisis of 2008, the emerging countries are displacing the developed countries in the attracting of foreign investment in R&D. What factors influence this phenomenon and how does it affect countries such as Spain?

What does society think of science and technology?

Infodata

What does society think of science and technology?

September 2017

Science

In what areas will science and technological innovation have a positive impact in the next 15 years? The view of citizens.

Open access to science

Infodata

Open access to science

September 2017

Science

Open Access means the online and free availability of the results of research. In Spain, the proportion of accessible and restriction-free documents stands above the European Union average.

How equitable is science?

Infodata

How equitable is science?

September 2017

Science

This indicator offers a view of the distribution of university research work between men and women. Women represent just 21% of chair professors.

Intensive use of human capital

Infodata

Intensive use of human capital

September 2017

Science

What is the percentage of people employed in knowledge-intensive activities? In Spain, approximately a third of the population, slightly below the European average.

Academic performance of students in sciences and attitudes towards science

Infodata

Academic performance of students in sciences and attitudes towards science

September 2017

Science

How many students aged over 15 years have excellent results in sciences and how many hope to undertake a research-related career? In 2015, some 28.6% of Spanish students wanted to work in a scientific profession.

Eco-innovation index (2015)

Infodata

Eco-innovation index (2015)

September 2017

Science

This indicator shows a view of innovation from an economic, environmental and social perspective. In 2015, the Spanish eco-innovation index was situated above that of the European Union.

Applications for patents and for patents in social challenges

Infodata

Applications for patents and for patents in social challenges

September 2017

Science

The total number of applications for patents is an indicator of companies' innovation effort. Specifically, those focusing on societal challenges measure the level of application of technology related with the environment and health.

Innovation Output Indicator (2014)

Infodata

Innovation Output Indicator (2014)

September 2017

Science

What are the possibilities for innovative ideas reaching the market in each country? In 2014, Sweden was the European Union country with the highest transfer of innovation to the market, whereas Portugal occupied the opposite position.

Index of Innovation in the European Union (2015)

Infodata

Index of Innovation in the European Union (2015)

September 2017

Science

This index allows comparison of the level of innovation in different regions. Measuring variables such as infrastructures, business activity or tangible results, it shows that in Spain there is still much work to be done.

How much do countries invest in R&D?

Infodata

How much do countries invest in R&D?

September 2017

Science

How much do countries invest in R&D? In more dynamic economies, the business sector is the major funder, whereas in Southern Europe, the governments lead investment.

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

Article

Long-Term Care following the Great Recession in European countries

August 2017

Social Inclusion
Joan Costa-Font, London School of Economics

Economic crises bring with them numerous political decisions that affect healthcare systems. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse the effects of the crisis on the reform of the long-term care system in European countries.

Forest fires in Spain: importance, diagnosis, and proposals for a more sustainable future

Article

Forest fires in Spain: importance, diagnosis, and proposals for a more sustainable future

August 2017

Science
Fernando Prieto, Sustainability Observatory

Forest fires are a recurring problem that destroy tens of thousands of hectares of woodland every year. In this article by the Social Observatory of “la Caixa”, we analyse sustainable solutions for the long term within a "green employment strategy". 

“Science issues are increasingly pressing civic issues”

Interview

“Science issues are increasingly pressing civic issues”

June 2017

Science
Lee Rainie and Cary Funk, Pew Research Center.

We interview Lee Rainie and Cary Funk, the heads of Internet, Science and Technology research at the Pew Research Center, the USA’s most prestigious fact tank.

On music, happiness and health. What do we know?

Article

On music, happiness and health. What do we know?

June 2017

Culture
Antonio Estache and Victor Ginsburgh, European Center for Advanced Research in Economics and Statistics (ECARES), Université libre de Bruxelles.

How does music influence our wellbeing? This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” describes how various researchers, healthcare practitioners and other professionals interpret the relationship that exists between music and happiness.

“The most important contribution of the arts is giving identity to a country or region”

Interview

“The most important contribution of the arts is giving identity to a country or region”

June 2017

Culture
John W. O’Hagan, Trinity College, Dublín

In this interview, John O’Hagan explains the numerous benefits that the arts bring to society, from their contribution to the formation of a collective identity to their positive impact on the economy.

«Science was never intended to be in the market, but today it’s a commodity»

Interview

«Science was never intended to be in the market, but today it’s a commodity»

June 2017

Science
Andrea Saltelli, researcher at the University of Bergen and at ICTA (Autonomous University of Barcelona - UAB)

"What purpose does science serve in current times? Is it for the common good or for the benefit of just a few? Science needs to learn humility and be prepared to admit it when a solution cannot be given.” Andrea Saltelli, researcher at the University of Bergen and at ICTA Barcelona, talks about the current crisis affecting science and its possible solutions.

“A science-informed approach specifically refers to understanding how problems develop”

Interview

“A science-informed approach specifically refers to understanding how problems develop”

June 2017

Social Inclusion
Dr Nick, Axford Senior Researcher and Head of What Works, Dartington Social Research Unit

The reduction in aid programmes for vulnerable groups has caused an increase in situations of social exclusion in Europe. In this interview, Nick Axford explains to the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” how social protection policies are designed and the factors that intervene in the process.

The psychosociology of climate change

Review

The psychosociology of climate change

May 2017

Science
Christian Oltra, Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (CIEMAT) and Universitat de Barcelona.

Climate change is a very complex problem, and its possible solutions may not be a matter of true or false, but of better or worse. We review two books that talk about how this debate is ceasing to be a technical and rational question to become a question of values and lifestyles.

Cultural Participation in Spain: Antecedents and Opportunities

Article

Cultural Participation in Spain: Antecedents and Opportunities

May 2017

Culture
Tally Katz-Gerro, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Haifa;Martin Falk, Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)

The level of cultural participation in our country is similar to that of other European countries, with the exception of the Nordic countries. From a comparative perspective, this article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” analyses the effects of education level, age, income and some variables of the employment situation on attendance rates.

“We have undervalued the importance of personal interrelations in education”

Interview

“We have undervalued the importance of personal interrelations in education”

May 2017

Education
Alan Daly, Chair Professor and Head of the Department of Education Studies, University of California, San Diego.

Alan Daly, Chair Professor of Education at the University of California, offers in this interview granted to the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” a view of the role of personal relations in the world of education, in which he highlights the concept of social capital.

Science and the future

Review

Science and the future

May 2017

Science
Tessa Dunlop, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology - Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB)

How can we tackle living with uncertainty? We analyse two books that provide a critical view and a philosophical focus to try to help manage our expectations regarding the future and the tools that science offers us to try to predict it.

Chemical pollution does not just have an impact on human health; it also has an impact on our econom

Interview

Chemical pollution does not just have an impact on human health; it also has an impact on our econom

April 2017

Science
Leonardo Trasande, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Environmental Medicine and Population Health School of Medicine,
New York University

What diseases are caused by the pollutants that we release into the environment? Why do they affect children most? What repercussion do these illnesses have on health and the economy? We interview Leonardo Trasande, professor at New York University and an expert on the subject.

Young people and wellbeing

Infodata

Young people and wellbeing

April 2017

Social Inclusion

The level of satisfaction with life varies according to age groups. The younger population tends to show higher levels of satisfaction.

Young people and participation

Infodata

Young people and participation

April 2017

Social Inclusion

What is the implication of young people in political activities and volunteering? In 2015, one in every ten young people took part in volunteering activities through an organisation.

Young people and social inclusion

Infodata

Young people and social inclusion

April 2017

Social Inclusion

What is the impact of poverty and social exclusion on young people? This infographic shows social exclusion rates by age group and the different problem issues linked to youth unemployment.

Young people and the labour market

Infodata

Young people and the labour market

April 2017

Social Inclusion

Youth unemployment in Spain is of a structural nature, accentuated in recent years by the economic crisis. In the last two decades, youth unemployment has practically doubled general unemployment.

Young people and education

Infodata

Young people and education

April 2017

Social Inclusion

What is the education level reached by young people aged between 25 and 34 years? In comparison with other countries, there is a high proportion of young adults with basic and tertiary education.

Young people and family relationships

Infodata

Young people and family relationships

April 2017

Social Inclusion

How has the economic situation changed between 2005 and 2015 for young people who live with their parents? Young men leave the parental home nearly two years later than young women.

Young people and demographic trends

Infodata

Young people and demographic trends

April 2017

Social Inclusion

What percentage of the total represents the child and youth population? In the year 2015, a third of the Spanish population was aged below 30 years.

Youth unemployment and poverty: a structural problem?

Dossier

Youth unemployment and poverty: a structural problem?

April 2017

Social Inclusion

The relationship between young people and the labour market is the central theme of this second Dossier from the “la Caixa” Social Observatory. The effect of the economic crisis on youth unemployment in the countries in our area will be a key factor to take into account when profiling the welfare states of tomorrow.

Fair society, healthy lives

Interview

Fair society, healthy lives

April 2017

Social Inclusion
Michael Marmot,
Director of the Institute of Health Equityof of the University College London (UCL)

Michael Marmot, director de Instituto de Equidad y Salud del University College London, explica los mecanismos que vinculan la desigualdad social con una mala salud, así como las políticas que deberían ponerse en marcha para reducirlas.

Incorpora Programme

Best practices

Incorpora Programme

April 2017

Social Inclusion
Rosa Suñol, director,
Instituto Avedis Donabedian – UAB

How can the occupational integration of people in a situation of or at risk of social exclusion be promoted? Rosa Suñol, director of the Avedis Donabedian Institute, explains the situation in Spain and the solutions that are being applied.

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

Article

The challenge for the Youth Guarantee

April 2017

Social Inclusion
Almudena Moreno, Professor of Sociology,
University of Valladolid

Numerous diagnoses exist relating to the increase in youth unemployment caused by the economic crisis. The article reflects on the effectiveness of policies generated according to these diagnoses and, especially, on the European Recommendation of the Youth Guarantee.

Low education level, low labour force participation

Article

Low education level, low labour force participation

April 2017

Social Inclusion
Begoña Cueto, Professor of Applied Economics,
University of Oviedo

The economic crisis has affected the labour market for young people in Spain, especially for those with a low level of education. This situation needs to be reverted to avoid many under-30s ultimately suffering from exclusion.

The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)

Article

The unequal impact of social exclusion in Spain (2007-2013)

April 2017

Social Inclusion
Nerea Zugasti, Lecturer at the Department of Social Work of the Public University of Navarra

Between the years 2007 and 2013, the difficulties faced in employment, housing and health worsened considerably in Spain. This article by the Social Observatory of "la Caixa” reflects on the problems that have intensified social exclusion which affects, above all, the younger population.

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

Article

Overqualification and unemployment in young people. Pathways to employment of university graduates

April 2017

Education
María Ramos, Post-doctoral researcher at the Carlos III University of Madrid

The economic crisis experienced by Spain has led to increasing numbers of young people opting to prolong their education given the lack of job prospects. This fact has caused overqualification among young people and the consolidation of unemployment.

Is research responding to health needs?

Article

Is research responding to health needs?

March 2017

Science
Ismael Ràfols, Ingenio (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politècnica de València;Alfredo Yegros, University of Leiden (Netherlands)

How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.

Evolución comparada de la pobreza infantil, juvenil  y de los mayores en Europa

Article

Evolución comparada de la pobreza infantil, juvenil y de los mayores en Europa

March 2017

Social Inclusion
Juan J. Fernández, Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Carlos III University, Madrid.

Has the protection of children and young people decreased over the last decade? In many European countries the child poverty rate is higher than the poverty rate among people aged over 64 years. This divergence is especially pronounced in Spain.

Los permisos parentales como instrumentos para la igualdad de genero

Article

Los permisos parentales como instrumentos para la igualdad de genero

February 2017

Social Inclusion
Gerardo Meil, chair professor of Sociology
Jesús Rogero-García, lecturer in Sociology
Pedro Romero-Balsas, lecturer in Sociology,
Autonomous University of Madrid

Today, thanks to policies aimed at reconciling working life and family life, increasing numbers of men are taking parental leave to be able to raise their newborn children. These new policies represent progress towards gender equality, but in Spain a significant difference still exists between men and women in the usage they make of parental leave entitlements.

Arriving in Rural Village Communities, Staying There or Leaving

Review

Arriving in Rural Village Communities, Staying There or Leaving

December 2016

Social Inclusion
Montserrat Soronellas Masdeu, Rovira i Virgili University

How should migration within the European context be studied? These two books, from the standpoints of gender and rurality, tackle a phenomenon previously studied above all in urban contexts with male protagonists. With these new perspectives, the scientific view offers extra depth to an issue of recent social importance.

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

Article

Empty Ballot Boxes in the City Suburbs

December 2016

Social Inclusion

Braulio Gómez, Researcher in Political Science at the University of Deusto
Manuel Trujillo, Coordinator of the Statistics Unit at the Advanced Social Studies Institute (IESA-CSIC)

Increasingly, the inhabitants of the suburbs have been choosing not to go and vote. What are the reasons that explain such extreme abstention by this collective in electoral processes? Has the new politics managed to draw greater participation from the more disadvantaged areas?

“Fighting climate change will benefit our health enormously”

Interview

“Fighting climate change will benefit our health enormously”

October 2016

Science
María Neira, Director of the Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health,
World Health Organization (WHO)

Atmospheric contamination causes 7 million deaths every year. María Neira, director of the WHO department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health, explains how policies focusing on improving people’s health also benefit the planet.

Educational expansion and the partial devaluation of credentials

Article

Educational expansion and the partial devaluation of credentials

October 2016

Education
Luis Ortiz, Professor of Political and Social Sciences
Jorge Rodríguez Menés, Professor of Political and Social Sciences,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Has mass access of Spaniards to intermediate and higher education been associated with a deterioration in the quality of educational qualifications, as some international bodies have warned?

The Social Elevator

Article

The Social Elevator

September 2016

Education Social Inclusion
Miguel Requena, Chair Professor of Sociology,
UNED

Despite its perception in recent years, education continues to be a very effective vehicle for social promotion, as well as a more significant factor than social origin in providing access to the professional classes.

Unemployment by sex and age - annual average

Barometer

Unemployment by sex and age - annual average

September 2016

There are no results.