Population changes and crude rates on a national level

Both indicators provide a quantitative measurement of the demographic changes in the period of reference.

The “Population Change” indicator measures the difference between the size of the population at the start and at the end of the period under consideration. A positive population change represents population growth, while a negative change represents its reduction. Population change has two components: the natural changes in the population (births and deaths) and the phenomenon of migration. The crude rates have been multiplied by 1,000 to facilitate their presentation, so that the result is expressed per 1,000 inhabitants (of the average population). The crude rates are presented for the total population (where both natural changes – births and deaths – and migratory movements are counted) and only for the migration phenomenon. This allows the effect of migration on population change to be seen.


Percentage of publications among top 10% most cited

Top 10% Most Cited is an indicator of the scientific impact of publications. This indicator defines the impact of one country's publications in international research.

Data is based on the Web of Science database by Thomson-Reuters. The percentage of top cited publications is computed for each scientific field based on fractional counting (i.e. in the case of multiple national affiliations, a fraction of the publication is assigned to each country). Generally, citations to papers peak in the second, third, or fourth year after publication, but some papers continue to be cited for many years. A few papers may show delayed recognition. The patterns can vary greatly depending on the type of paper, the field, and the nature of the finding reported. Papers reporting discoveries, for example, can rise quickly and then fall as the discovery is further described in other articles. Papers reporting methods or techniques can gradually increase in citation frequency over several years as the methods are disseminated throughout the community and prove their own usefulness.

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Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

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Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

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Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

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Is research responding to health needs?

Is research responding to health needs?

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How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Knowledge-intensive activities as a percentage of total employment

Employment in Knowledge-Intensive Activities (KIA) is identified based on a level of tertiary educated individuals in sectors of economic activity, and therefore it is a proxy of the degree of usage of knowledge in economic activities.

Organisations with knowledge-intensive activities are defined as those that carry out knowledge-related services for consumers or generate inputs for innovative activities. Knowledge-intensive activities are defined by EU Labour Force Survey data, as all NACE Rev. 2 industries at 2-digit level where at least 33% of employed people have a higher degree.

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Research and innovation: what are our stakes?

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Is it countries with resources that make the biggest investment in science? Or is it that countries that devote the most efforts to science are those that generate the greatest wealth? This is the opening question of the third "la Caixa" Social Observatory Dossier, which analyses the current social context of science and to what extent it represents a value-added contribution to our society. 

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Science

The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

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Is research responding to health needs?

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How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Composició per sexe dels graduats superiors en camps relacionats amb la cultura

This indicator allows a vision of the greater or lesser predominance of women among the graduates of studies related with cultural issues.

Higher education refers to the UNESCO ISCED levels 5-8. This means it includes short-term tertiary education, degrees in tertiary education, master’s degrees and specialisation courses and PhD education. The fields related with culture are: Arts and Humanities, Journalism and Information, and Architecture.

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Effect of the immigrant population on the cultural life of the country

This indicator analyses how the presence of immigrants influences the cultural life of the country. The indicator is presented for different groups with the aim of observing how it varies according to sex, age group and people with different educational levels, economic activities and type of habitat.

This indicator stems from a question included in the European Social Survey on human values in which respondents were asked if they think that the cultural life of their country is undermined or enriched by immigrants. The answer categories are the following: Undermined, Enriched and Neutral. Income level is presented in quintiles: incomes have been divided into five parts that are equal in percentage terms (which group together 20% of the income) giving rise to five quartiles. If the first quintile includes citizens with the lowest incomes, the fifth quintile includes those with the highest incomes. The education level is presented in three groups associated with ISCED codes: Low (ISCED 1 and 2), Middle (ISCED 3 and 4) and High (ISCED 5 or higher).

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Importance of having new ideas and being creative

This indicator tells us the degree to which people value being creative and having new ideas. The indicator is presented for different groups with the aim of observing the diversity of evaluation according to sex, age group and people with different educational levels and economic activities.

This indicator stems from a question included in the European Social Survey on human values in which respondents were offered the description of a hypothetical person for whom it is important to think up new ideas and be creative. The respondent must answer whether this hypothetical person is like him/her or not. The answer categories are the following: Not like me, Like me, and Neutral. Income level is presented in quintiles: incomes have been divided into five parts that are equal in percentage terms (which group together 20% of the income) giving rise to five quintiles. The first quintile includes citizens with the lowest incomes, and the fifth quintile those with the highest incomes.

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Percentage of people who are satisfied with living in the city where they live

This indicator allows an idea of the percentage of people who are satisfied with the city where they live.

This indicator stems from a question included in the Urban Audit and the Flash Eurobarometer on Quality of Life in European Cities: I am satisfied to live in my city. The answer options are: Strongly agree, Somewhat agree, Somewhat disagree, Strongly disagree and No answer.

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Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

Dossier

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

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Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Culture

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.


Satisfaction with cultural facilities in European cities

This indicator offers a view of the degree of satisfaction among European citizens regarding cultural facilities available in their place of residence. To a certain extent, this indicator allows a ranking of the highest valued cities to be made.

This indicator stems from a question included in the Urban Audit and in the Flash Eurobarometer on Quality of Life in European Cities regarding the degree of satisfaction with respect to cultural facilities such as cinemas, theatres, museums and libraries in the city where respondents live. The answer categories are the following: Very satisfied, Rather satisfied, Rather unsatisfied, Not at all satisfied or No answer.

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Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

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Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

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Culture

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

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Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

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Culture

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.


Evaluation of the Education System

This indicator provides information on the perception that the population has regarding the education system and how this perception varies according to socioeconomic and cultural factors.

The scoring scale ranges from 0 (very bad) to 10 (very good). The level of studies is presented in three groups associated with ISCED codes: Low (ISCED 1 and 2), Medium (ISCED 3 and 4) y and high (ISCED 5 or higher).

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Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

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Education

The “la Caixa” Banking Foundation grants programme, which funds postgraduate studies, has a major impact on the careers of its beneficiaries. Who applies for these grants and what factors determine to whom they are awarded?

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Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.  


Educational performance by sex of student immigrant background

Sex differences in student performance have been widely highlighted by both academic institutions and international organizations. A common finding is that gender strongly influences performance in the different skills evaluated in the PISA (Programme for International Student Evaluation) – mathematics, reading and science.

For the purposes of PISA 2012, “mathematical proficiency” is designed as the student’s personal capacity to formulate, use and interpret mathematics in different contexts. It includes mathematical reasoning and the use of mathematical concepts, procedures, tools and data to describe, explain and predict phenomena. Also, it helps people to recognise the role that mathematics play in the world and to arrive at well-founded judgements and decisions. “Reading proficiency" is defined as the student’s personal capacity to understand, use, reflect on and take an interest in written texts, to reach his/her own objectives, develop his/her own knowledge and potential and participate in society. “Proficiency in sciences" is defined as scientific knowledge and the use that can be made of that knowledge to identify questions, acquire new knowledge, explain scientific phenomena and reach conclusions based on scientific tests. It includes the understanding of the characteristics of science as a form of knowledge and of research, as well as the awareness of how science and technology organise our material and intellectual medium.

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Performance in mathematics by student immigrant background

Language knowledge, school track record and other aspects of a cultural and socioeconomic nature can condition the academic performance of pupils of immigrant origin. Hence the significance of measuring the difference between non-immigrant and immigrant students in their level of competencies in mathematics at the age of 15 years. This difference represents a good approximation of the degree of integration among immigrant students, and within this group, between first- and second-generation immigrants.

The PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) tests define first-generation immigrant students as those not born in the country of assessment whose parents were also not born in the country of assessment, while second-generation immigrant students are those who were born in the country of assessment whose parents are both foreign-born.

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Formal care of the population aged below 3 years, as a percentage of the population of said age group

This indicator provides information regarding the percentage of children aged below 3 years that receive formal care for 30 hours or more per week.

The term “formal care” refers to regulated educational programmes of the education system, such as nurseries, authorised private childcare providers or play centres, among others.

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Percentage of children aged below 6 years that are at risk of poverty

This indicator provides information on the percentage of children aged below 6 years that are at risk of poverty.

According to Eurostat and LIS (the Luxembourg Income Study) it is considered that a household with total income below 60% of the equivalised median disposable income (after social transfers) is at risk of poverty.

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Rate for education and training early leavers, by sex

The rate for early leavers from education and training measures the percentage of young people aged 18 to 24 years who have completed at most compulsory lower secondary education and do not go on to further education or training to attain what has been defined as the desirable target for the 21st century: post-compulsory secondary education (“Bachillerato” or intermediate specific Vocational Training).


Percentage of people at risk of poverty and/or social exclusion (AROPE indicator)

The AROPE (At Risk of Poverty and/or social Exclusion) indicator offers a multidimensional view of poverty and/or social exclusion accounting for the population that are at risk of poverty, severely materially deprived or living in households with very low work intensity.

AROPE refers to people at risk of poverty and/or social exclusion. According to the Europe 2020 Strategy, people at risk of poverty and/or social exclusion are those that are in at least one of the following three situations:

- At risk of poverty (income per consumption unit below 60% of the median equivalised disposable income).

- In households without employment or with low work intensity (households whose members of working age did so for less than 20% of their total work potential).

- Suffering severe material deprivation (experiencing at least four out of the following nine concepts: 1. Cannot afford to go away for one week’s holiday a year. 2. Cannot afford a meal containnig meat or fish at least every two days. 3. Cannot afford to keep the home adequately warm. 4. Cannot face unexpected expenses (of 650 euros). 5. Has fallen behind with payments related with the main residence (mortgage or rent, gas bills, community costs, etc.) or purchases by instalments in the last 12 months.6. Cannot afford to have a car. 7. Cannot afford to have a telephone. 8. Cannot afford to have a television. 9. Cannot afford to have a washing machine).


Gini coefficient

The Gini coefficient measures inequality in income distribution and its value may vary between 0 and 1. To facilitate its interpretation, frequently its values are multiplied by 100, varying between 0 and 100. The closer it is to zero the more equal the distribution that exists whereas a coefficient close to 100 implies a distribution approaching maximum inequality.

The three aggregates allow the level of equity of income distribution before and after social transfers to be seen and, therefore, the redistributing effect that social transfers have in the different countries. Considering pensions separately allows the reducing effect of the distribution inequalities of social transfers other than pensions to be observed. GC equivalised disposable income means considering all social monetary transfers; CG counting only pensions means that it does not include other social monetary transfers; CG without transfers means that does not include pensions or other social monetary transfers.


GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS). Index (EU-28 = 100)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure for a country’s economic activity. It refers to the monetary value of all end goods and services produced by an economy in a determined period. The volume of GDP per inhabitant in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU28) with the average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per inhabitant is higher than the EU average and vice versa.

The data are expressed in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS), which enables elimination of the differences in price levels between countries allowing meaningful volume comparisons of GDP between countries. The index, expressed with respect to EU-28 = 100, is intended for comparisons between countries rather than for temporal comparisons.


Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP

GERD indicates a country’s investment in R&D, in both the public and the private sectors. Expenditure on R&D is believed to be related to a country’s future capability to innovate and generate economic growth, particularly when the investment is conducted by firms. "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications"" (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, § 63 ).”

GERD includes expenditure by business enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit expenditure on R&D. GERD includes total intramural expenditure on R&D performed within a country, funded nationally and from abroad but excludes payments for R&D performed abroad. GERD tends to be under-represented in countries with a high % of SMEs and or with innovation in non-manufacturing sectors. In a minor number of countries, micro enterprises with less than 10 employees where R&D activity is expected to be negligible are excluded from the R&D surveys. However, this has only a minor impact on the aggregated data.

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At-risk-of poverty rate by household type

This indicator provides information on the population at risk of poverty due to low income. The indicator is presented for different types of household, insofar as the household composition has a bearing on the value of the at risk of poverty rate.

The indicator is defined as the percentage of persons with income below 60% of the median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

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Percentage of households experiencing severe material deprivation by household type

This indicator informs on the population at risk of poverty and/ or social exclusion that live in households that are experiencing severe material deprivation. The indicator is presented for different household types, insofar as the household composition has a bearing on the value of the at risk of poverty rate.

Severe material deprivation is defined as households in least four situations out of the nine in the following list: 1. Cannot afford to go on holiday for at least one week per year. 2. Cannot afford a meal with meat, chicken or fish at least every two days. 3. Cannot afford to keep the dwelling at an adequate temperature. 4. Is unable to tackle unforeseen expenses (of 650 euros). 5. Has been late paying expenses related with the main residence (mortgage or rent, gas bills, community costs, etc.) or in the payment of purchase instalments in the last 12 months. 6. Cannot afford to have a car. 7. Cannot afford to have a telephone. 8. Cannot afford to have a television. 9. Cannot afford to have a washing machine.

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