Number of researchers, as a percentage of the active population, and compared to the total R&D personnel

Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned. Numbers of researchers and R&D personnel are presented by public (government, higher education) and private (business and non-for-profit) sectors, and by sex. The number of researchers and R&D personnel is an input indicator of a country’s R&D effort. In some countries R&D investment can be relatively low, but they may nevertheless have an important part of the active population in R&D activities.

The number of researchers is counted on the basis of Full Time Equivalent (FTE). Full count of researchers with less than a 100% FTE yields slightly different data.

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Environment and employment: is there a prize for clean play?

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The Social Observatory of “la Caixa” wonders whether it is possible to combine concern for the environment with economic growth. This study, one of the first in its field, shows a positive link between eco-innovation and the creation of employment, even in periods of recession.

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How can we ensure that biomedical research is aligned with social needs? This article from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses how resources could be assigned efficiently.


Discover our barometer


Patent applications and patent applications in Societal Challenges

The number of patents per unit of GDP indicates the relative investment in innovation that businesses are making. The total number of patent applications is a proxy of innovative effort, while Patents in Societal Challenges indicates applications in environment- and health-related technologies.

We report the number of patent applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, at international phase, designating the European Patent Office (EPO). Patent counts are based on the priority date, the inventor’s country of residence and fractional counts. As a proxy of innovation, it is problematic in many sectors (e.g. services, finance, health care, agriculture), and thus affected by a country’s sectoral mix. The unit of GDP is a billion euros, normalized to Purchising Power Standard.

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Percentage of children aged below 15 years by work intensity of the household

This indicator allows a quantitative idea of the group of children/ young people that live in households where only one or neither of the two parents is working and that, therefore, are at greater risk of poverty and/or social exclusion.

The work intensity of a household is the ratio of the total number of months that all working-age household members have worked during the income reference year and the total number of months the same household members theoretically could have worked in the same period. A working-age person is defined as a person aged 18-59 years, excluding students in the age group between 18 and 24 years. Households composed only by children, students below 25 years and/or persons aged 60 years or over are excluded from the calculation of the indicator.

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Culture Indicators

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Infodata

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Percentage of the population that took at least one training course related with culture in the last year

Culture

How many people participate in complementary training courses linked to culture? In 2015, 5.9% of the Spanish population underwent some training of this type.

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Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

Cultural participation and wellbeing. What do the data tell us?

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Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

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Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Cultural consumption: a question of taste or of price?

Culture

This article from the Social Observatory of "la Caixa" analyses the role played by education and income in people’s participation in cultural activities of different types.


Education Indicators

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The “la Caixa” Banking Foundation grants programme, which funds postgraduate studies, has a major impact on the careers of its beneficiaries. Who applies for these grants and what factors determine to whom they are awarded?

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Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

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Education

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.  


Social Inclusion Indicators

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Context Indicators


Duration of relative poverty in households with children aged below 15 years

This indicator provides information on the duration of relative poverty in children aged below 15 years.

The data provided by EU-SILC (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) allow the persistence of poverty to be measured for a maximum period of four years.

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Percentage of children aged below 3 years who attend pre-primary education according to the hours of care and household income level

This indicator provides information on the percentage of children aged below 3 years who receive formal care and on how this may vary according to the hours of care and household income level.

Income level is presented in quartiles. The first quartile (Q1) represents 25% of families with the lowest incomes; the second quartile (Q2) represents the 25% of families with income below the median value but above the first quartile; the third quartile (Q3), represents the 25% of families with income higher than the median value but lower than the forth quartile, and the fourth quartile (Q4) represents the 25% of families with the highest incomes. The weekly care hours are grouped into 3 categories: 0 hours; from 1 to 29 hours; 30 or more hours. Formal care refers to organised structures with qualified staff, whether at pre-school centres or at a registered family-type structure.

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Education Social Inclusion

Despite its perception in recent years, education continues to be a very effective vehicle for social promotion, as well as a more significant factor than social origin in providing access to the professional classes.

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Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Reading skills among native and immigrant children: the compensating effect of preschool attendance

Education Social Inclusion

Pre-school education plays a fundamental role in improving reading comprehension capabilities in primary and secondary school, especially among immigrant students. This is shown by the results in the three countries analysed: Spain, Norway and Sweden. 


Representative salary per hour worked by education level attained and age group

Both the level of education and training attained and age have a bearing on salary level. Thus, younger workers and those with a lower educational level tend to concentrate at the lower salaries, whereas older workers and those who have attained a higher education level have a higher relative weight among the higher salaries.

The representative salary refers to the median salary, i.e., the value of the salary that divides the number of workers into two equal groups: the group of workers with a salary above that value and the group of workers earning a lower salary. Given the existence of significant differences between countries in the participation of women in the labour market, especially in the case of countries in Southern Europe, it has been decided to compare only the salary of men. This avoids any bias derived from comparing women’s salaries between countries.

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Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.  


Science, Innovation and Environment Indicators

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Percentage of students have in the educational system at the age of 15 years, by immigrant status

This indicator enables us to know the distribution of students according to their origin and, therefore, the weight that students of immigrant origin, both first- and second-generation, have in the educational system.

PISA (the Programme for International Student Assessment) defines as first-generation immigrant students those not born in the country of assessment and as second-generation immigrant students those born in the country of assessment with both parents foreign-born.

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Education Social Inclusion

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Social expenditure as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

This indicator measures, in percentage of Gross Domestic Product, the effort made by countries in social matters.

Public social expenditure includes both social transfers (such as retirement pensions, unemployment benefits, etc.) and the providing of public services (such as healthcare, education, social services, social housing, etc.).

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Level of education attained by the population aged between 30 and 34 years

This indicator informs on the educational attainment of the population aged between 30 and 34 years. Its relevance lies in the positive impact that completing higher education has on a personal, social and economic level. The European headline target for 2020 is that the percentage of people in this age group holding a tertiary education qualification should exceed 40%.

According to the International Standard Classification of Education and its equivalence in Spain, the “basic education” level includes primary education, as well as the first cycle of secondary education (levels 1 and 2 of the UNESCO’s ISCED), the “intermediate education” level includes the second cycle of secondary education (levels 3 and 4 of the UNESCO’s ISCED) and the higher education” level includes short-cycle tertiary education, degrees in tertiary education, master’s degrees, specialisation and doctorates (levels 5 to 8 of the UNESCO’s ISCED).

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Comparison between the percentage of higher graduates employed in the cultural sector against the percentage of higher graduates employed in the country

This indicator offers an image of the employability of individuals with higher education in the cultural sector with respect to the rest of the economy. This indicator tells us whether the cultural sector occupies a higher percentage of qualified workers (higher studies) than the average for the economy.

Higher education refers to the UNESCO ISCED levels 5-8. This means it includes short-cycle tertiary education, bachelor’s degrees or equivalent, master’s degrees and specialisation courses and doctoral qualifications. The fields related with culture are: Arts and Humanities, Journalism and Information, and Architecture.

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Employment rates of recent graduates (20-34 years) by sex

This indicator provides information on the employment of young people aged 20 to 34 years who have completed their education and training during the three previous years by sex . The aim of the European Union (Horizon 2020) places this rate at 82%. The indicator is reported by sex with the aim of observing potential differences between the two groups.

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Performance in mathematics by socioeconomic and cultural level of families

The relationship between the socioeconomic and cultural level of families and the performance in mathematical skills of students aged 15 years represents a measure of the capacity of education systems to reduce social inequalities. A weaker relationship indicates that the education system has a better capacity for moderating the effect that the social and family environment of students has on their school performance.

The ESCS indicates the economic, social and cultural status of the families of students assessed in PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment). Taken into account to calculate this index are the professional occupation and education level of the parents, as well as the resources available in the home (e.g. number of books in the home). Four categories of economic, social and cultural status are used corresponding to four quartiles. Category ESCS 1 corresponds to 25% of families with the lowest socioeconomic levels; Category ESCS 2, to the 25% of families with socioeconomic and cultural levels lower than the average value but higher than category ESCS 1; category ESCS 3 represents the 25% of families with socioeconomic and cultural levels higher than the average value but lower than category ESCS 4, and category ESCS 4, the 25% of families with the highest socioeconomic and cultural levels.

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Percentage of students with very low performance in reading by socioeconomic and cultural factors

This indicator relates the very low learning capacity in reading proficiency, This indicator relates the very low learning capacity and some relevant socioeconomic and cultural variables, such as the fact that the household has more or less than 25 books or that the educational level of the father, of the mother, or both is low.

“Very low proficiency” occurs when the score in reading is less than or equal to 407 points- the lower reading literacy score is 335 while higher reading scores are above 624 points. The ESCS indicates the economic, social and cultural status of the families of students assessed in PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment). To calculate this index the professional occupation and educational level of the parents are taken into account, along with the resources available in the household (e.g. number of books in the home).

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Percentage of immigrants with respect to the total population

This indicator has a bearing on many social aspects such as the labour market, education, healthcare, poverty and/or social exclusion, culture and population changes.

The definition of “immigrant” included in the indicator is that of a person born abroad. The population born abroad covers all people who have emigrated from their country of birth to their current country of residence and includes both people with the nationality of their country of residence and those without that nationality.

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