Rate for education and training early leavers, by sex

The rate for early leavers from education and training measures the percentage of young people aged 18 to 24 years who have completed at most compulsory lower secondary education and do not go on to further education or training to attain what has been defined as the desirable target for the 21st century: post-compulsory secondary education (“Bachillerato” or intermediate specific Vocational Training).

Population changes and crude rates on a national level

Both indicators provide a quantitative measurement of the demographic changes in the period of reference.

The “Population Change” indicator measures the difference between the size of the population at the start and at the end of the period under consideration. A positive population change represents population growth, while a negative change represents its reduction. Population change has two components: the natural changes in the population (births and deaths) and the phenomenon of migration. The crude rates have been multiplied by 1,000 to facilitate their presentation, so that the result is expressed per 1,000 inhabitants (of the average population). The crude rates are presented for the total population (where both natural changes – births and deaths – and migratory movements are counted) and only for the migration phenomenon. This allows the effect of migration on population change to be seen.

Percentage of publications among top 10% most cited

Top 10% Most Cited is an indicator of the scientific impact of publications. This indicator defines the impact of one country's publications in international research.

Data is based on the Web of Science database by Thomson-Reuters. The percentage of top cited publications is computed for each scientific field based on fractional counting (i.e. in the case of multiple national affiliations, a fraction of the publication is assigned to each country). Generally, citations to papers peak in the second, third, or fourth year after publication, but some papers continue to be cited for many years. A few papers may show delayed recognition. The patterns can vary greatly depending on the type of paper, the field, and the nature of the finding reported. Papers reporting discoveries, for example, can rise quickly and then fall as the discovery is further described in other articles. Papers reporting methods or techniques can gradually increase in citation frequency over several years as the methods are disseminated throughout the community and prove their own usefulness.

You may also find interesting

Interview

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

Science

Paul Wouters, director of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at the University of Leiden, talks with the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” about new tendencies in research evaluation.

Culture Indicators

You may also find interesting

Interview

"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

Culture

To what point does art contribute to social integration? Talking about access to culture under conditions of equality with Sunil Iyengar.

Interview

“Culture belongs to the upper classes. It is hard to attract families with lower education levels”

“Culture belongs to the upper classes. It is hard to attract families with lower education levels”

Culture

How can the cultural consumption of the new generations, particularly that of families with lower educational levels, be increased? Françoise Benhamou provides some key points in this interview.

Science, Innovation and Environment Indicators

You may also find interesting

Interview

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

Science

Paul Wouters, director of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at the University of Leiden, talks with the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” about new tendencies in research evaluation.

Education Indicators

You may also find interesting

Article

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Education

The “la Caixa” Banking Foundation grants programme, which funds postgraduate studies, has a major impact on the careers of its beneficiaries. Who applies for these grants and what factors determine to whom they are awarded?

Article

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Education

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.

Context Indicators

Social Inclusion Indicators

You may also find interesting

Report

The redistributive effects of wealth tax

The redistributive effects of wealth tax

Social Inclusion

Does a wealth tax help to reduce inequality when it comes to distributing wealth? This report shows that Spain’s wealth tax displays major shortcomings that limit its collection and redistributive impact.

Report

Analysis of social needs of senior citizens

Analysis of social needs of senior citizens

Social Inclusion

Elderly people enjoy greater economic stability but suffer from a worse state of health. We analyse the situation of this population segment prior to the drastic change caused by covid-19.

Report

Analysis of social needs of youth

Analysis of social needs of youth

Social Inclusion

A lack of professional opportunities and labour precarity mean that young people are very vulnerable to economic crises. What were the circumstances of this group prior to covid-19?

Knowledge-intensive activities as a percentage of total employment

Employment in Knowledge-Intensive Activities (KIA) is identified based on a level of tertiary educated individuals in sectors of economic activity, and therefore it is a proxy of the degree of usage of knowledge in economic activities.

Organisations with knowledge-intensive activities are defined as those that carry out knowledge-related services for consumers or generate inputs for innovative activities. Knowledge-intensive activities are defined by EU Labour Force Survey data, as all NACE Rev. 2 industries at 2-digit level where at least 33% of employed people have a higher degree.

You may also find interesting

Interview

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

Science

Paul Wouters, director of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at the University of Leiden, talks with the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” about new tendencies in research evaluation.

Patent applications and patent applications in Societal Challenges

The number of patents per unit of GDP indicates the relative investment in innovation that businesses are making. The total number of patent applications is a proxy of innovative effort, while Patents in Societal Challenges indicates applications in environment- and health-related technologies.

We report the number of patent applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, at international phase, designating the European Patent Office (EPO). Patent counts are based on the priority date, the inventor’s country of residence and fractional counts. As a proxy of innovation, it is problematic in many sectors (e.g. services, finance, health care, agriculture), and thus affected by a country’s sectoral mix. The unit of GDP is a billion euros, normalized to Purchising Power Standard.

You may also find interesting

Interview

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

Science

Paul Wouters, director of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at the University of Leiden, talks with the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” about new tendencies in research evaluation.

Number of researchers, as a percentage of the active population, and compared to the total R&D personnel

Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned. Numbers of researchers and R&D personnel are presented by public (government, higher education) and private (business and non-for-profit) sectors, and by sex. The number of researchers and R&D personnel is an input indicator of a country’s R&D effort. In some countries R&D investment can be relatively low, but they may nevertheless have an important part of the active population in R&D activities.

The number of researchers is counted on the basis of Full Time Equivalent (FTE). Full count of researchers with less than a 100% FTE yields slightly different data.

You may also find interesting

Interview

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

Science

Paul Wouters, director of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at the University of Leiden, talks with the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” about new tendencies in research evaluation.

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP

GERD indicates a country’s investment in R&D, in both the public and the private sectors. Expenditure on R&D is believed to be related to a country’s future capability to innovate and generate economic growth, particularly when the investment is conducted by firms. "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications"" (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, § 63 ).”

GERD includes expenditure by business enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit expenditure on R&D. GERD includes total intramural expenditure on R&D performed within a country, funded nationally and from abroad but excludes payments for R&D performed abroad. GERD tends to be under-represented in countries with a high % of SMEs and or with innovation in non-manufacturing sectors. In a minor number of countries, micro enterprises with less than 10 employees where R&D activity is expected to be negligible are excluded from the R&D surveys. However, this has only a minor impact on the aggregated data.

You may also find interesting

Interview

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

“You must not measure everybody using the same set of criteria”

Science

Paul Wouters, director of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at the University of Leiden, talks with the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” about new tendencies in research evaluation.

Composition by sex of senior graduates in fields related to culture

This indicator allows a vision of the greater or lesser predominance of women among the graduates of studies related with cultural issues.

Higher education refers to the UNESCO ISCED levels 5-8. This means it includes short-term tertiary education, degrees in tertiary education, master’s degrees and specialisation courses and PhD education. The fields related with culture are: Arts and Humanities, Journalism and Information, and Architecture.

You may also find interesting

Effect of the immigrant population on the cultural life of the country

This indicator analyses how the presence of immigrants influences the cultural life of the country. The indicator is presented for different groups with the aim of observing how it varies according to sex, age group and people with different educational levels, economic activities and type of habitat.

This indicator stems from a question included in the European Social Survey on human values in which respondents were asked if they think that the cultural life of their country is undermined or enriched by immigrants. The answer categories are the following: Undermined, Enriched and Neutral. Income level is presented in quintiles: incomes have been divided into five parts that are equal in percentage terms (which group together 20% of the income) giving rise to five quartiles. If the first quintile includes citizens with the lowest incomes, the fifth quintile includes those with the highest incomes. The education level is presented in three groups associated with ISCED codes: Low (ISCED 1 and 2), Middle (ISCED 3 and 4) and High (ISCED 5 or higher).

You may also find interesting

Importance of having new ideas and being creative

This indicator tells us the degree to which people value being creative and having new ideas. The indicator is presented for different groups with the aim of observing the diversity of evaluation according to sex, age group and people with different educational levels and economic activities.

This indicator stems from a question included in the European Social Survey on human values in which respondents were offered the description of a hypothetical person for whom it is important to think up new ideas and be creative. The respondent must answer whether this hypothetical person is like him/her or not. The answer categories are the following: Not like me, Like me, and Neutral. Income level is presented in quintiles: incomes have been divided into five parts that are equal in percentage terms (which group together 20% of the income) giving rise to five quintiles. The first quintile includes citizens with the lowest incomes, and the fifth quintile those with the highest incomes.

You may also find interesting

Percentage of people who are satisfied with living in the city where they live

This indicator allows an idea of the percentage of people who are satisfied with the city where they live.

This indicator stems from a question included in the Urban Audit and the Flash Eurobarometer on Quality of Life in European Cities: I am satisfied to live in my city. The answer options are: Strongly agree, Somewhat agree, Somewhat disagree, Strongly disagree and No answer.

You may also find interesting

Interview

"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

Culture

To what point does art contribute to social integration? Talking about access to culture under conditions of equality with Sunil Iyengar.

Interview

“Culture belongs to the upper classes. It is hard to attract families with lower education levels”

“Culture belongs to the upper classes. It is hard to attract families with lower education levels”

Culture

How can the cultural consumption of the new generations, particularly that of families with lower educational levels, be increased? Françoise Benhamou provides some key points in this interview.

Satisfaction with cultural facilities in European cities

This indicator offers a view of the degree of satisfaction among European citizens regarding cultural facilities available in their place of residence. To a certain extent, this indicator allows a ranking of the highest valued cities to be made.

This indicator stems from a question included in the Urban Audit and in the Flash Eurobarometer on Quality of Life in European Cities regarding the degree of satisfaction with respect to cultural facilities such as cinemas, theatres, museums and libraries in the city where respondents live. The answer categories are the following: Very satisfied, Rather satisfied, Rather unsatisfied, Not at all satisfied or No answer.

You may also find interesting

Interview

"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

"When at-risk youths come into contact with the arts, their academic achievement and their civic and social engagement improve"

Culture

To what point does art contribute to social integration? Talking about access to culture under conditions of equality with Sunil Iyengar.

Interview

“Culture belongs to the upper classes. It is hard to attract families with lower education levels”

“Culture belongs to the upper classes. It is hard to attract families with lower education levels”

Culture

How can the cultural consumption of the new generations, particularly that of families with lower educational levels, be increased? Françoise Benhamou provides some key points in this interview.

Evaluation of the Education System

This indicator provides information on the perception that the population has regarding the education system and how this perception varies according to socioeconomic and cultural factors.

The scoring scale ranges from 0 (very bad) to 10 (very good). The level of studies is presented in three groups associated with ISCED codes: Low (ISCED 1 and 2), Medium (ISCED 3 and 4) y and high (ISCED 5 or higher).

You may also find interesting

Article

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Education

The “la Caixa” Banking Foundation grants programme, which funds postgraduate studies, has a major impact on the careers of its beneficiaries. Who applies for these grants and what factors determine to whom they are awarded?

Article

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Education

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.

Representative salary per hour worked by education level attained and age group

Both the level of education and training attained and age have a bearing on salary level. Thus, younger workers and those with a lower educational level tend to concentrate at the lower salaries, whereas older workers and those who have attained a higher education level have a higher relative weight among the higher salaries.

The representative salary refers to the median salary, i.e., the value of the salary that divides the number of workers into two equal groups: the group of workers with a salary above that value and the group of workers earning a lower salary. Given the existence of significant differences between countries in the participation of women in the labour market, especially in the case of countries in Southern Europe, it has been decided to compare only the salary of men. This avoids any bias derived from comparing women’s salaries between countries.

You may also find interesting

Article

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Applicants and awardees of the ”la Caixa” Grants programme: who are they?

Education

The “la Caixa” Banking Foundation grants programme, which funds postgraduate studies, has a major impact on the careers of its beneficiaries. Who applies for these grants and what factors determine to whom they are awarded?

Article

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Training for employed people: the need for expansion and improvement

Education

Training workers is vital for improving their employability. However, since the economic crisis, investment in training has fallen by 50% in Spain and social agents barely participate in the definition of continuous training actions.

Percentage of children aged below 6 years that are at risk of poverty

This indicator provides information on the percentage of children aged below 6 years that are at risk of poverty.

According to Eurostat and LIS (the Luxembourg Income Study) it is considered that a household with total income below 60% of the equivalised median disposable income (after social transfers) is at risk of poverty.

You may also find interesting

Report

The redistributive effects of wealth tax

The redistributive effects of wealth tax

Social Inclusion

Does a wealth tax help to reduce inequality when it comes to distributing wealth? This report shows that Spain’s wealth tax displays major shortcomings that limit its collection and redistributive impact.

Report

Analysis of social needs of senior citizens

Analysis of social needs of senior citizens

Social Inclusion

Elderly people enjoy greater economic stability but suffer from a worse state of health. We analyse the situation of this population segment prior to the drastic change caused by covid-19.

Report

Analysis of social needs of youth

Analysis of social needs of youth

Social Inclusion

A lack of professional opportunities and labour precarity mean that young people are very vulnerable to economic crises. What were the circumstances of this group prior to covid-19?